I Executive Summary
II Summer 1999: A Season of Hate
III The Findings
IV Anti-Semitism and the Internet
V Harassment, Threats and Assaults
VI Vandalism Incidents
VII Campus Incidents
VIII

Regional Breakdown

IX Arrests
X Conclusion
XI President Clinton on ADL & Hate Crime
XII Federal Hate Crime Response Initiatives
XIII A Note on Evaluating Anti-Semitic Incidents
 
Charts and Graphs
  Audit Data Charts
 

Listing of Reported
Campus Incidents

  Related Link(s):
  ADL Model Hate
Crimes Legislation

  States with Penalty-Enhancement Hate Crimes Laws
  State Hate Crimes Statutory Provisions
  ADL Resources

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Federal Hate Crime Response Initiatives: A 1999 Status Report

The Federal Government has an essential leadership role to play in confronting criminal activity motivated by bigotry and in promoting prejudice reduction initiatives for schools and the community.

I. The 106th Congress

In the first session of the 106th Congress, lawmakers approved significant budget increases for Federal civil rights enforcement, but failed to act on important legislation designed to facilitate Federal investigations and prosecutions of violent bigotry.

The Hate Crime Prevention Act (HCPA): Closing Gaps in Federal Law

State and local law enforcement officials play the primary role in the prosecution of hate violence. The Federal Government, however, also has authority to address a limited number of cases either because the crimes have a particular Federal connection or because local officials are either unable or unwilling to handle the case effectively.

The Hate Crime Prevention Act would strengthen existing Federal hate crimes laws in two ways. Under current law, 18 U.S.C. Sec. 245, the government must prove both that the crime occurred because of a person's membership in a designated group and because (not simply while) the victim was engaged in certain specified Federally protected activities - such as serving on a jury or attending public school. The HCPA would eliminate these overly restrictive obstacles to Federal involvement, which have prevented government from involvement in many cases in which individuals kill or injure others because of racial or religious bias.

Second, the HCPA would authorize the Department of Justice to assist local prosecutions, and, where appropriate, investigate and prosecute cases in which the bias violence occurs because of the victim's sexual orientation, gender, or disability. Existing Federal law does not provide authority for involvement in these cases at all. Currently, only 21 states include sexual orientation-based crimes in their hate crimes statutes, 20 states include coverage of gender-based crimes, and 22 states include coverage for disability-based crimes.

Hearings were held in both the Senate and House Judiciary Committees in the first session of the 106th Congress. The Senate included the HCPA as part of the Commerce State Justice Appropriations bill (CSJ). The House-approved CSJ measure did not include the HCPA and the House-Senate Committee that met to reconcile differences removed the HCPA from the bill. Despite significant efforts, White House negotiators were unable to insert the measure in the final omnibus appropriations bill.

The HCPA has been endorsed by 22 State Attorneys General and over 100 national law enforcement agencies, civil rights groups, religious denominations and local government associations. Supporters of the legislation will try to build on support from more than 40 Senators and 185 Representatives to secure passage of this critical legislation before Congress adjourns in fall, 2000.

 

II. White House Leadership

Over the past two years, the Clinton Administration has demonstrated a strong commitment to improving race relations and addressing hate violence in an inclusive and comprehensive manner. President Clinton has spoken out repeatedly in support of enactment of the HCPA. Building on the success of the historic November 1997 White House Conference on Hate Crime, Administration officials - especially Attorney General Janet Reno - continue to provide support for a number of diverse new Federal initiatives designed to address prejudice and bias-motivated criminal activity. Among the most promising are the following:

Federal Law Enforcement Hate Crime Training Initiative

A comprehensive new hate crime training curriculum for law enforcement officials has now been presented at over 140 regional and state train-the-trainers conferences. Teams of law enforcement officials, victim assistance professionals and civil rights and community relations professionals have trained more than 4,000 law enforcement officials.

Hate Crime Working Groups

At the direction of Attorney General Janet Reno, U.S. Attorneys in many of the 94 judicial districts have established or assisted in strengthening Hate Crime Working Groups, composed of state and local police and sheriffs, FBI agents, prosecutors and representatives from civil rights groups and community-based organizations. Through regular meetings, these groups provide forums for discussing sources of community tensions, developing hate crime response protocols and building relationships between law enforcement officials and community-based organizations.

International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) Hate Crime Summit

In June 1998, the IACP held a two-day national summit on hate violence in America. Police officials, academics, civil rights professionals and prosecutors came together to discuss the nature of the problem and to identify promising methods to address it. In January 1999, the IACP published an excellent Summit Report, which includes a number of practical suggestions on preventing and responding to bias-motivated criminal activity.

Recommendations from the Summit Report are available at http://www.theiacp.org.

The American Prosecutors Research Institute (APRI) Resource Guide for Prosecutors

Funded by the Justice Department's Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), the APRI, the research arm of the National District Attorneys Association, is developing a comprehensive desk manual for prosecutors for identifying, responding and preventing hate violence. The desk manual contains information about case screening, investigations, trial preparation and sentencing alternatives. The manual will form the centerpiece for the development of a training curriculum specifically designed for prosecutors.

`Responding to Hate Crimes: A Police Officers Guide to Investigation and Prevention'

This new guidebook, developed by the International Association of Chiefs of Police under a grant provided by the Department of justice, highlights the essential components of an effective response for police officers who are the first to arrive at the scene of a bias crime. The pamphlet outlines steps for authorities to take to preserve the evidence, approaches to assisting victims, and strategies for preventing hate violence. Under a grant from the justice Department's Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA)and Office for Victims of Crime, 450,000 copies of the guidebook will be distributed to law enforcement officers across the country.

Hate Crime training Roll-Call Video

With an introduction by Attorney General Janet Reno, this 20-minute video is designed for police roll-call training sessions. Under 38 another BJA grant, this video will be distributed to all 14,000 state and local law enforcement agencies in the nation. The video, which outlines investigative techniques and bias indicators and describes victim assistance and community relations issues, is accompanied by an Instructor's Guide which contains Frequently Asked Questions and several additional case scenarios for discussion.

 



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