I Executive Summary
II Summer 1999: A Season of Hate
III The Findings
IV Anti-Semitism and the Internet
V Harassment, Threats and Assaults
VI Vandalism Incidents
VII Campus Incidents

Regional Breakdown

IX Arrests
X Conclusion
XI President Clinton on ADL & Hate Crime
XII Federal Hate Crime Response Initiatives
XIII A Note on Evaluating Anti-Semitic Incidents
Charts and Graphs
  Audit Data Charts

Listing of Reported
Campus Incidents

  Related Link(s):
  ADL Model Hate
Crimes Legislation

  States with Penalty-Enhancement Hate Crimes Laws
  State Hate Crimes Statutory Provisions
  ADL Resources

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Harassment, Threats and Assaults

Anti-Semitic acts of harassment, threats or assault against Jewish individuals or institutions declined from 896 in 1998 to 868 in 1999, a decrease of 3 percent. However, as in previous years, incidents of this nature constitute the majority of all anti-Semitic activity included in the Audit.

Anti-Semitic harassment covers a wide range of hostile acts, ranging from anti Jewish slurs and affronts to physical assault. Fliers containing anti-Semitic messages or leaflets from virulent anti-Semitic groups that are left on cars or in mailboxes are considered acts of harassment, as are anti-Jewish or Holocaust-denying letters-to-the-editor or advertisements printed in newspapers. In addition, verbal or written threats directed against individuals or Jewish institutions (including death threats and bomb threats) account for a portion of the harassment incidents.

Over the last few years, as the Internet has moved into more and more homes, libraries and schools, the number of harassing acts associated with the world of computers has increased. In 1999, several anti-Semitic and threatening messages were sent through electronic mail to Internet users. While most of these incidents of harassment are not criminal in nature, they shed light on another important form of expression of anti-Semitism which is generally not included in hate-crimes statistics.

Examples of Harassment,
Threats and Assaults

The following is a representative sampling of anti-Semitic incidents of harassment, threat and assault in the 10 states reporting the highest totals of such acts in 1998.

  • California (166 incidents) - 8/23/99 - An apartment manager reportedly told a tenant, "You Russian f----n' Jew, we don't want you here, move out." (Hollywood)
  • New York (150 incidents) - 9/21/99 Two individuals, one residing in Manhattan, the other in the Bronx, received the same anti-Semitic E-mail, which stated that "Jews are the spawn of Satan."
  • New Jersey (91 incidents) - 10/20/99 Several high school students harassed a Jewish student, screaming anti-Semitic remarks, and throwing pennies at him. (Hackensack)
  • Massachusetts (75 incidents) - 12/12/99 The owner of a retail auto business received an anonymous hate mailing including a sheet entitled, "How to identify a Jew." (Lowell)
  • Florida (62 incidents) - 12/10/99 - 77year-old Aris Paxinos confessed to making a series of false bomb threats to Broward County synagogues and to 911. The calls had been occurring since May. Paxinos was identified following a 911 call. He is charged with 13 felony counts and is awaiting trial.
  • Connecticut (54 incidents) - 6/1/99 - An anonymous caller twice phoned a call-in program on a public access cable television station and made anti-Semitic statements, including references to "Blood-sucking Jews." (Hartford)
  • Pennsylvania (54 incidents) - 12/99 Threatening, anti-Semitic letters were sent to the office of the American Jewish Committee, along with 16 other AJC regional offices throughout the country. The letter read in part, "This is just to announce that we will be Y2K compliant ...We want to be ready to take this war to the next level against you kikes... All Jews should burn in H--l. "
  • Illinois (22 incidents) - 12/30/99 - An anti-Semitic message was left on the voice mail of The Regional Director of Jewish Reconstructionist Federation: "Yeah, all you f-g Jews better act ready because when the year 2000 comes, Hitler's coming and burning all you f-g Jews." (Skokie)
  • Michigan (22 incidents) - 5/4/99 - The owner of transportation company said he "would never pick up any Jews from West Bloomfield because they are too cheap." (West Bloomfield)
  • Texas (19 incidents) - 6/27/99 Distribution of an anti-Semitic booklet entitled "Who Rules America," published by The National Alliance, a neo-Nazi organization, was reported by a Jewish couple who found the booklet in their mailbox. (Houston)


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2000 Anti-Defamation League