Volume 19, Fall 2006
Nuremberg Trials 60th Anniversary
The Twelve Subsequent Trials
October 16, 1946
The International Military Tribunal ended with the hanging of ten of the war criminals in Nuremberg.
December 1945, Control Law No. 10
In December of 1945 the necessity of further trials had been discussed and Ordinance Number 7 had been enacted, establishing subsequent military tribunals. “On December 20, 1945, the Allied Control Council issue Control Law No. 10, establishing the basis for "the prosecution of war criminals and similar offenders." Each of the occupying authorities was authorized, in its occupation zone, to try persons suspected of committing war crimes. The Military Governor of the American Zone subsequently enacted Ordinance No. 7, establishing military tribunals with the power to try and punish. Each of the tribunals was comprised of three American lawyers, usually past or present members of state judiciaries. The judges were recruited by the War Department.” —Doug Linder, www.law.umkc.edu
Chief prosecutor Telford Taylor
opens the prosecution case in the Krupp Trial.
October 25, 1946
The Twelve Subsequent Trials effectively began on October 25, 1946 when the United States Military Government for Germany established Military Tribunal I, which would try twenty-three Nazi physicians in the first of twelve subsequent trials in Nuremberg.
The Archives for the Twelve Subsequent Trials
Chris Laico, the former archivist at the Diamond Law Library of Columbia University, had organized the papers of Telford Taylor, which provide an in depth look at the twelve subsequent trials at Nuremberg. Chris Laico had organized the papers and photographs of the trials and was always available to help researchers go through the collection. For this issue of Dimensions, Chris spent hours showing the photographic collection and telling what it was like for him personally to work on the collection.
Chris Laico, Archivist, on the left
Case names of the Twelve Subsequent Trials
The following are the case names of the twelve subsequent trials, the charges and defendants, and the trial dates:
Four of the Twelve Subsequent Trials:
- Case Name: Doctors or Medical Case
CHARGES AND DEFENDANTS: Twenty-three Nazi physicians and administrators charged with conducting inhumane experiments on German civilians and nationals of other countries. The experiments ranged from studying the effects of high altitude and malaria to sterilization.
Trial Dates: December 9, 1946 to Aug. 20, 1947
- Case Name: Milch Case
Charges and Defendants: Former German Field Marshall Erhard Milch charged with murder and cruel treatment of POWs, and with participation in experiments dealing with effects of high altitude and freezing.
Trial Dates: January 2, 1947 to April 16, 1947
- CASE NAME: Justice or Judges Case
Charges and Defendants: Nine members of the Reich Ministry of Justice and seven members of the People's and Special Courts charged with using their power as prosecutors and judges to commit war crimes and crimes against humanity.
Trial Dates: March 5, 1947 to December 4, 1947
- Case Name: Pohl/WVHA Case
Charges and Defendants: Oswald Pohl and seventeen other members of WVHA (Economic and Administrative Office) charged with war crimes against POWs in concentration camps which WVHA controlled after spring of 1942.
Trial Dates: April 8, 1947 to November 3, 1947
- Case Name: Flick Case
Charges and Defendants: Six members of the Flick Concern, a group of industrial enterprises, charged with using concentration camp inmates and POWS for slave labor in German-occupied territories, deporting plundering private property - the "Aryanization" of Jewish properties.
Trial Dates: April 19, 1947 to December 22, 1947
- Case Name: I.G. Farben Case
Charges and Defendants: Twenty-four defendants, all in the IG Farben industrial concern, charged with plunder and spoliation of private property in German-occupied territories and other war crimes.
Trial Dates: August 27, 1947 to July 30, 1948
- Case Name: Hostage Case
Charges and Defendants: Twelve defendants, officers in the German Armed Forces, charged with murdering thousands of civilians in Greece, Yugoslavia, and Albania, committing acts of devastation in Norway and other countries, drafting orders denying POWs rights, and ordering the slaughter of POWS.
Trial Dates: July 15, 1947 to February 19, 1948
- Case Name: R.U.S.H.A. Case
Charges and Defendants: Fourteen defendants, officials in the Race and Settlement Office and the Office for the Strenghtening of Germandom, charged with crimes against humanity relating to murder, deportation, and torture on political, racial, and religious grounds.
Trial Dates: October 20, 1947 to March 10, 1948
- Case Name: Einsatzgruppen Case
Charges and Defendants:Twenty-four defendants, all members of German mobile killing units, the Einsatzgruppen, charged with the murder and ill-treatment of POWs and civilians in occupied countries, and with wanton destruction not justified by military necessity.
Trial Dates: September 29, 1947 to April 9, 1948
- Case Name: Krupp Case
Charges and Defendants: Alfred Krupp and eleven other defendants, all members of the Krupp industrial concern, charged with enslavement and other war crimes, including the plunder of public and private property.
Trial Dates: December 8, 1947 to July 31, 1948
- Case Name: Ministries Case
Charges and Defendants: Twenty-one defendants, including three Reich Ministers, as well other members of the Nazi Party hierarchy, charged with waging wars of aggression, violating international treaties, and committing various crimes of war and crimes against humanity
Trial Dates: January 6, 1948 to April 13, 1949
- Case Name: High Command Trial
Charges and Defendants: The accused in this trial were all high-ranking generals of the German Wehrmacht (one was a former Admiral) and former members of the High Command of Nazi Germany's military forces. They were charged with having participated in or planned or facilitated the execution of the numerous atrocities committed in countries occupied by the German forces during the war. The accused were charged with four counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity.
Trial Dates: December 30, 1947 to October 28, 1948
This second part of this issue focuses on only four of the Twelve Subsequent Trials:
- Three Industrial Trials
- The Einsatzgruppen.
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