The Holocaust: A Chronology of Selected Events

Late 1932- January 1933 Adolf Hitler campaigned for Chancellor of Germany; his platform included vicious anti-Jewish propaganda
January 30 -February 1 Hitler becomes Chancellor
March 22, 1933 First concentration camp, Dachau is established outside of Munich
April 1, 1933 Nazis proclaimed a general boycott of all Jewish-owned businesses including Jewish lawyers and doctors
April 7, 1933 Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service. Jews banned from civil service and from practice of law
April 25, 1933 The Law for Preventing Overcrowding in German Schools and Schools of Higher Education takes effect; the law restricts enrollment of Jews
April 26, 1933 Gestapo Secret State Police of Nazi Germany established
May 10, 1933 Public book deemed of "un-German spirit," most of them written by Jews and opponents of Nazism burned
June 30, 1934 "Night of the Long Knives" - Hundreds of actual and presumed opponents of Hitler are executed. No public outcry
August 2, 1934 German President Hindenburg dies. Hitler declares himself Fuhrer of the German State and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces
October, 1934 First arrests of German homosexuals begin
April 30, 1935 Jews may no longer display the German flag
May 31, 1935 Jews are banned from the German armed forces
Summer, 1935 Juden Verboten (No Jews) signs in restaurants, stores and elsewhere increased
September 15, 1935 Nuremberg Laws passed - Reich Citizenship Law and Law for Protection of German Blood and Honor - prohibiting the marriage between Jews and subjects of German or kindred blood; citizenship denied to Jews
November 14, 1935 The precise terminology of Nuremberg Laws defined "degrees of Jewishness" based on one's number of Jewish grandparents.
March 15, 1936 Mass anti-Nazi rally in New York
July 12, 1936 First arrests of German Roma (Gypsies), as "a-socials" take place and sent to Dachau
August 1-16, 1936 Olympic Games held in Berlin. Anti-Jewish signs are removed
October 25, 1936 Rome-Berlin Axis is signed by Mussolini and Hitler
November 25, 1936 Germany and Japan sign military pact
July 15, 1937 Buchenwald Concentration Camp established in Weimar
September 13, 1937 Jews can be released from "protective detention" by emigrating
October 21, 1937 Himmler: returning Jewish emigrants will be sent to concentration camps
March 13, 1938 Austria annexed to the Third Reich; the 20,000 Jews in Austria are immediately subject to all anti-Semitic laws in effect in Germany
April 26, 1938 Organization of Jewish wealth implemented which provides for the registration and seizure of Jewish assets
August 8, 1938 The first Austrian concentration camp is established at Mauthausen
July 6-14, 1938 Evian Conference - This conference was called by FDR to deal with the Jewish Refugee Problem. No real help for Jews
September 27, 1938 Jewish lawyers debarred from practicing law in Germany
September 29, 1938 Munich Agreement: England and France accept German annexation of parts of Czechoslovakia - Sudentenland
October 5, 1938 Passports of Jews marked with the letter "J"
October 28, 1938 17,000 Polish-born Jews expelled from German to Poland; most interned in Zbaszyn
November 9, 1938 Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) occurs across Germany and Austria. 91 Jews are killed; others beaten. Over 200 synagogues destroyed, shops looted and 30,000 Jews arrested and sent to concentration camps
November 10, 1938 Italy adopts anti-Semitic racial laws
November 15, 1938 All remaining Jewish children are expelled from German schools
January 1, 1939 All Jews decreed to assume an additional middle name, Israel for males and Sarah for females, for easy identification
January 30, 1939 Hitler gives speech in the Reichstag stating that if war breaks out the result will be the extermination of Europe's Jews
August 23, 1939 Nazis and Soviets sign Non-Aggression Pact - plan for the Partition of Poland
September 1, 1939 Germany invades Poland
September 3, 1939 Britain, France, India, Australia, and New Zealand declare war on Germany
September 21, 1939 SS Security Service Chief Reinhard Heydrich orders establishment of Ghettos in Poland - all small Jewish towns and villages with populations under 500 deported to large urban ghettos
November 23, 1939 Hitler authorizes euthanasia ('mercy deaths") to murder by gassing incurably ill "undesirable German citizens"
October 12, 1939 Jews deported from Austria and Moravia to Poland
November 7, 1939 Nazi's begin mass deportations of Jews from Western Poland
November 23, 1939 Polish Jews are ordered to wear white armbands with a blue star of David whenever appearing in public
December 13, 1939 Decree on Aryanization (compulsory seizure of Jewish industries, businesses and shops) is enacted
Spring 1940 Germans invade and conquer Denmark, Norway, Holland, Luxembourg, Belgium and France
April 30, 1940 Ghetto at Lodz, Poland, is sealed off
June 14, 1940 Germany occupies Paris
June 22, 1940 France surrenders to the Germans
July 10, 1940 Vichy government formed
September 27, 1940 Berlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis is established
October 3, 1940 Vichy France enacts anti-Jewish laws, modeled on German Nuremberg Laws
November 15, 1940 Warsaw Ghetto is sealed off from the rest of the city
March 13, 1941 Construction of Auschwitz II-Birkenau camp begins
April 24, 1941 Lublin Ghetto sealed
June 22, 1941 Operation Barbarossa begins, as Nazis invade Russia. Special mobile killing squads - Einsatzgruppen - begin their systemic murder of more than one million Jews by firing squads
September 3, 1941 First experiments with gassing conducted at Auschwitz
September 29-30, 1941 34,000 massacred in Kiev at Babi Yar
October 23-25, 1941 34,000 massacred in Odessa (the Ukraine)
November 24, 1941 "Model Camp" established in Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia
December 7, 1941 Japanese attack Pearl Harbor; U.S. enters war
December 8, 1941 Chelmno extermination camp in Poland opened - 2,300 Jews are gassed on the first day.
Mass murders take place throughout occupied Eastern Europe (Ponary, Vilna, Kovno, Pinsk, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine, White Russia, Russia, Rumania, etc.)
Single day murders: 9/15/41 - 18,000 in Berdichev, Ukraine; 9/16/41 - 24,000 in Uman, Ukraine; 9/22/41 - 28,000 Vinnitsa, Ukraine; 11/5/41 - 17,000 Rovno, Ukraine; 12/8/41 - 25,000 Riga, Latvia; 12/22/41 - 32,000 Vilna, Lithuania
January 20, 1942 Wannsee Conference in Berlin of top Nazi leaders plan the annihilation of 11,000,000 European Jews
March 13, 1942 The Joint Distribution Committee reports that Germans have already killed 240,000 Jews in Ukraine alone
June 2, 1942 First deportations of German Jews to Theresienstadt
July 14-19, 1942 First deportations of Dutch Jews (from Westerbork Transit Cap) and French Jews (Drancy) to be murdered in Auschwitz.
July 16, 1942 Roundup of Parisian Jews
July 19, 1942 Himmler orders the deportation of all Jews in General Government by end of 1942 to their death.
From 1941-1945, six major death camps were established in Poland. The victim totals: Auschwitz Birkenau - 1.1 million; Belzec - 500,000; Chelmno - 300,000; Sobibor - 250,000; and Treblinka - 700,000
July 22, 1942 Starting date for 300,000 Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto deported to Treblinka
October 28, 1942 First deportations from Theresienstadt to Auschwitz
December 17, 1942 Allies condemn German mass murder
January 5-7, 1943 Nazis killed 10,000 Jews and deported thousands of others from Lvov Ghetto (Ukraine)
January 12, 1943 Transporting Jews from all over Europe to Death Camps. A) From Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia; B) From Marseilles, Belorussia, Bialystock, Salonika (Greece), Yugoslavia, Germany, Austria, Poland…
January 20-26, 1943 2,000 Jews deported from Terezin (Bohemia) to Auschwitz; 1,760 of them gassed immediately upon arrival
January 21, 1943 First resistance by Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto takes place
February 25, 1943 Ghetto established in the Greek port of Salonika for all the city's Jews
February 26, 1943 First transport of Roma (Gypsies) reaches Auschwitz
April 19 - May 16, 1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Example of heroic Jewish resistance against overwhelming odds
May 16, 1943 Warsaw Ghetto liquidated - 56,000 sent to Treblinka to be murdered
May 25, 1943 Approximately 3,000 Jews rounded up during raids in Amsterdam
June 11, 1943 Liquidation of all remaining Polish ghettos ordered
June 28, 1943 Last of five crematoria at Birkenau completed, leaving the killing center with the capacity to cremate 4,750 corpses per day
August 2, 1943 Jewish inmates of Treblinka death camp revolt
August 18, 1943 Prisoners of Sonderkommando 1005 forced to exhume tens of thousands of bodies at Babi Yar
September 23, 1943 Vilna Ghetto liquidated
October 1-2, 1943 Danish Jews rescued
October 14, 1943 Revolt in Sobibor - 110 reached freedom; 35 survived the war
April 16, 1944 Hungarian Government registers Jews and confiscates their property
May 15, 1944 First of over 450,000 Hungarian Jews are sent to their deaths in Auschwitz
June 6, 1944 D-Day
July 8, 1944 Kovno Ghetto liquidated
July 20, 1944 Attempt to assassinate Hitler fails
July 22, 1944 Lvov liberated; 110,000 Jews dead
July 23, 1944 Red Cross mission visits Theresienstadt
July 25, 1944 Red Army liberates Majdanek
October 6, 1944 200 Sonderkommandos revolt in Auschwitz-Birkenau - attack guards - blow up crematoria - none survive
January 18, 1945 Auschwitz abandoned; death march of prisoners begins
January 27, 1945 Soviet Troops liberate 7,000 inmates in Auschwitz. Thousands are forced on Death March to the West. 250,000 to 375,000 prisoners, most of them Jewish, will die during death marches ordered by Nazi Germany in the final days before total defeat and surrender
April 4-30, 1945 German concentration camps liberated by allied forces - Buchenwald, Ohrdruft, Mathausen, Bergen-Belsen, Ravensbruck…
April 30, 1945 Hitler commits suicide in his underground bunker in Berlin
May 7, 1945 Germany surrenders and the war ends in Europe
May 8, 1945 V-E Day
August 6, 1945 Atomic bomb on Hiroshima; Nagasaki bombed three days later
August 15, 1945 Japan surrenders unconditionally; end of World War II
November 22, 1945 Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal start. The Nuremberg Trials concluded on October 1, 1946, which happened to be the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), with a judgment in which 12 defendants were sentenced to death, three to life imprisonment, four to various prison terms, and three acquitted

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