The Roadmap is a three-phased, performance-based peace plan based on reciprocal steps by both the Israelis and the Palestinians. It was introduced in September 2002, amidst continuing Palestinian terrorism, by the United States, the European Union, the Russian Federation, and the United Nations (collectively dubbed The Quartet). On April 30, 2003 the Quartet released the “Performance-Based Roadmap to a Permanent Two State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict” which outlined the three phases of the plan with the eventual goal of settling the Israeli-Palestinian conflict by 2005. The plan called upon the Quartet to facilitate and monitor the completion of each phase of the plan.
As initially drafted, the first phase of the plan required that the Palestinians undertake the necessary measures to ensure an unconditional cessation of violence, terrorism and incitement, restructure the security forces, enact political reforms and engage in democratic institution building. The Israelis were required to facilitate the Palestinian’s security measures and to withdraw its military forces from areas it entered in September 2000. Israel was also called on to dismantle settlement outposts and to freeze settlement activity.
In the second phase the Quartet was to assess whether the new Palestinian government had met the requirements necessary to lead an independent Palestinian state. If the Palestinians were to meet the Quartet’s approval, a provisional Palestinian state would be established in the territory that was under P.A. jurisdiction on September 28, 2000.
The third and final phase called for the stabilization of the new Palestinian government and security infrastructures which, if the Quartet found that all the prerequisites have been met, would result in negotiations for a final status peace agreement and the establishment of a permanent Palestinian state by the end
The Israeli government, under the leadership of Ariel Sharon, accepted the general framework of the Roadmap, however, they cited 14 reservations which they had to the text. These objections included ensuring that the Palestinians make substantial effort to reform their security forces and to stop terrorism before the second phase would be implemented, and calling for American supervision of the implementation of the Roadmap’s obligations.
However, because of the failure of the PA to clamp down on terrorism, as required by the first phase of the plan, little practical progress was made in the implementation of the Roadmap. Additionally, the election of Hamas stymied any progress forward since Hamas does not recognize the Roadmap or other proposals for Israeli-Palestinian coexistence.
On November 27, 2007, the Roadmap was revived at the U.S.-hosted Annapolis Conference. At the conference Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas issued a joint statement in which both parties agreed to begin implementing their obligations under the Roadmap, working towards a permanent two-state solution and an end to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The statement, however, stated that the U.S., and not, as stipulated in 2002, the Quartet, will monitor the execution and fulfillment of the obligations for both sides.