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Israel  
Fortieth Anniversary of the Six Day War RULE Settlements

Posted: May 22, 2007


Introduction
About the Six Day War
United Nations Security Council Resolution 242
Jerusalem
West Bank and Gaza Strip
Settlements
Refugees
From the Archives: "The Miracle" by Benjamin Epstein

Settlements are Jewish communities that were established in the West Bank and Gaza Strip after the territories were left under Israeli military control at the end of the 1967 War.  As of 2006, there are more than 250,000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank. 


Historically, Judea and Samaria (the West Bank ) is the cradle of Jewish civilization, containing the birthplaces and burial sites of key personalities in the Bible. Jews lived in the area until 1948, when the West Bank was occupied by Jordan in the Arab-Israeli war. Indeed, several of the current settlement communities in the West Bank and Gaza Strip existed prior to 1948 when they where overrun by invading Arab armies. Kfar Etzion and other villages in the Jerusalem-Bethlehem corridor, for example, fell to Arab forces in May 1948 and those captured were massacred. Sons and daughters of those who lived there until 1948 were the first to return after the 1967 war. The Gaza Strip has archeological remains of centuries of Jewish communal life.


In the 1970s, successive Israeli governments believed that settlements in certain sections of the West Bank, particularly in the Jordan Valley and eastern slopes of Samaria, as well as in areas of the Gaza Strip would provide Israel with an important military buffer zone.

While often characterized as "ideological, right-wing, nationalist and religious," the settler population is actually more diverse and includes secular Israelis and new immigrants as well as those who chose their homes based on affordability and convenience rather than on religion or politics. Many settlers and supporters of the movement do believe that there is a religious obligation to settle and hold on to this land. In addition, the vast majority of settlers and their supporters believe that they play an essential role in providing security for the State of Israel, by providing a first line of defense against Palestinian or other Arab attack.

Indeed, Israeli settlements have suffered greatly from Palestinian terrorism. Since 2000, Israeli settlers in the West Bank have been directly targeted by snipers and bombers. Settlements in the Gaza Strip have been the favored target of Palestinian rocket attacks.

Since 1967, Israeli governments have maintained a willingness to withdraw from areas of the West Bank and Gaza Strip in a peace agreement with the Arabs. In the event of such an agreement, it has always been expected that at least some of the settlements, particularly those of the Gaza Strip, would have to be uprooted, just as the Israeli town of Yamit in the Sinai was dismantled following Israel's peace agreement with Egypt.

In the Oslo Accords, settlements were to be negotiated as a final status issue, and were not to be discussed during the interim period. At Camp David, in July 2000, Prime Minister Ehud Barak reportedly offered to uproot all Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip and the isolated settlements in up to ninety-five percent of the territory of the West Bank. The remaining settlements in five percent of the territory of the West Bank – which contain the vast majority of the settler population – was to be gathered into settlement "blocs" which would be annexed to Israel. Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasir Arafat refused the plan.

In 2003, Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, a long-time advocate for settlements, announced plans for Israel to disengage from the Gaza Strip, uproot its settlements and relocate its 8,000 residents. Four settlements in the northern West Bank would also be uprooted. Sharon argued that in the absence of a serious Palestinian peace partner and ongoing Palestinian terrorism, Israel needed to take unilateral steps to ensure its own security and improve conditions on the ground. In the months leading up to the disengagement, public opinion polls showed that the majority of Israelis support the disengagement plan, backing Sharon's argument that this difficult process is necessary to ensure Israel's long-term security. However, a large and vocal minority of Israelis, particularly the settler community and their supporters, remained vehemently opposed.  The disengagement from the Gaza settlements began on August 15, 2005. By September 15 all Israeli civilians had left the Gaza settlements, and on October 1 the last Israeli soldier left the strip, completing the disengagement.





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2007 Anti-Defamation League