The following is a chronology of some of the events
surrounding anti-government criminal activity in the United
States during the first half of the year 1997. It illustrates
both the scope of such activityfrom large-scale acts of
terrorism to local acts of harassment and
intimidationand its geographic extentfrom major
cities like Los Angeles and New York to remote rural areas in
Texas and Montana. The chronology is not comprehensive.
Although all major events are included, no systemized
reporting system exists for smaller scale events. As a
result, arrests or convictions for charges such as placing
bogus liens, impersonating a public official or committing
similar offenses are considerably underrepresented in this
report. Such activities occur with a high level of frequency
across the nation. More than thirty-three states are listed
in this report; however, incidents are occurring in every
January 2, South Dakota: In Rapid City, South Dakota,
"freeman" Bill Huseby is bound over for trial. He
is charged with sending false documents to the Pennington
county Sheriffs Office, a former judge, and a private
citizen; also, three misdemeanor charges.
January 6, Washington: Seattle resident Richard Frank
Burton, arrested with eight other individuals last July on
various weapons and conspiracy charges, pleads guilty in U.S.
District court to one count of conspiracy and three other
charges. His wife, Caitlin Hansen, pleads guilty to one count
of destroying and concealing evidence. A third individual,
Theodore Carter, pleads guilty to one conspiracy charge and
agrees to testify against his fellow defendants. The three
are part of a mixed group of militia members and
January 6, Oklahoma: Three commonlaw court advocates
plead guilty in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to a federal conspiracy
charge. Kenny Moore, Colleen Moore and Wayne Gunwall had
filed bogus liens on IRS agents to the amount of $7 million,
and had issued "citizens arrest warrants" against
several federal officials. The trial of another defendant,
Dan Meador, begins on January 8.
January 10, Oklahoma: Dan Meador is convicted of
obstructing justice and illegally communicating with a member
of a federal grand jury (see above).
January 13, Virginia: Two Mechanicsville, VA, residents
are sentenced to eighteen months in prison on tax evasion
charges. Jerry Martin and his wife Sadie Martin, Christian
Identity adherents, were "sovereign citizens" who
denied the legal existence of the United States.
January 16, Oregon: Common law court activist Charles
Stewart, leader of a Portland, Oregon group, tries "in
absentia" seven IRS agents at his Kangaroo court. Two
weeks later, the "court" rules that four of the
agents should pay fines of $100,000 each for seizing a
Portland home. However, it was up to the man whose home was
seized to collect the money.
January 22, Georgia, North Carolina: District Attorney
Albert Taylor, Jr., prosecutor for the Enotah Circuit in
Georgia, requests and receives a "writ of non
molestando" to stop a "sovereign citizen,"
Melvin Julius Robinson, from harassing him. Robinsons
actions included filing a $100 million frivolous lawsuit
against him and demanding that Taylor appear before the
"Our One Supreme Court" of Franklin, North
Carolina. In response, Taylor dusted off an ancient writ that
probably had never been used in the state to restrain
Robinson from using the legal process to "molest,
vilify, obstruct, or hinder" the lawful discharge of
January 24, Missouri: Five common law court advocates in
Lincoln County, Missouri, are sentenced to two years in
prison and a $5,000 fine, and a sixth, Dennis Logan, is
sentenced to seven years in prison and a $5,000 fine. The
defendants were charged with tampering with a judicial
officialspecifically, filing a $10.8 million bogus lien
against a judge to force him to drop a speeding case
involving the daughter of one of the defendants. Nine other
defendants, also convicted, have yet to be sentenced.
January 24, Minnesota: Michael Moeller is charged in
Winona County, Minnesota, of making terroristic threats.
Moeller, a militia sympathizer, threatened to blow up the
headquarters of the state Department of Natural Resources,
where he formerly worked.
January 28, Wisconsin: Sally Minniecheske, the wife of
Wisconsin Posse Comitatus leader Donald Minniecheskie, is
sentenced to nine months for disorderly conduct, obstructing
an officer and fleeing arrest. The charges stemmed from a
1995 incident during a property seizure in which
Minniecheskie threatened a police chief and led him on a car
chase through Tigerton, Wisconsin. The Minniecheskies have
been involved in anti-government activities in Tigerton for
more than twenty years.
January 30, Pennsylvania: In Philadelphia, Christian
Identity minister Mark Thomas is indicted on conspiracy
charges related to the armed robberies committed by the
"Midwestern Bank Bandits," who dubbed themselves
the "Aryan Republican Army." Also arrested is
Michael Brescia. Brescia and Thomas bring the total number
arrested for these robberies to six.
January 30, Mississippi, Tennessee: Armed militia members
from Mississippi precipitate an unexpected standoff near
Memphis, Tennessee, when they show up to halt the eviction of
two Southaven residents from their home. Local officials back
away from the eviction and say they will pursue the matter in
court some more.
February 6, California: Two California men are found
guilty of fraud in San Jose for passing bogus checks created
by the Montana Freemen. The jury finds Robert Young guilty of
conspiracy, three counts of bank fraud, two counts of mail
fraud, and one count of filing a false claim with the IRS.
Frank Pepper is convicted on two counts of mail fraud. Two
other defendants had plead
guilty before the trial.
February 10, Connecticut: Nena Frankle and John Barney are
arrested by local police on charges of interfering with
police and criminal trespass, after they resisted attempts by
authorities in Connecticut to take possession of their
foreclosed residence. Frankle and Barney are members of a
group of Connecticut common law court advocates and tax
protesters which advocates such resistance.
February 10, Ohio: Peter Langan is convicted in federal
court in Columbus, Ohio, of five felonies related to 1994
armed robberies of banks in Columbus and Cincinnati. Langan
is the leader of the "Midwestern Bank Bandits," who
claimed to engage in armed robbery to support their
February 14, Missouri: The remaining seven common law
court activists of the thirteen convicted earlier in Missouri
receive their sentences: six activists sentenced to two years
in prison and a seventh activist to seven years. All
additionally must pay a $5,000 fine.
Ca. February 15, Washington: Charles Miller and three
other men are arrested in Washington on sixteen counts of
conspiracy to defraud banks, mail fraud, and interstate
transportation of stolen property. Another accomplice,
Kathleen Cottam, was arrested earlier and pled guilty. The
suspects had obtained bogus money orders from Montana Freeman
leader LeRoy Schweitzer in 1995 and had been using them to
buy cars and motor homes in Washington. Charles Christenson,
Kurt Gilson, and Veryl Knowles were also arrested.
February 15, Ohio, Washington, Arkansas, Montana, Utah:
Near Wilmington, Ohio, Chevie and Cheyne Kehoe, two brothers
from Washington, engage in two shootouts with local police
during and following a routine traffic stop. A bystander is
wounded. The Kehoes, Christian Identity adherents with ties
to Aryan Nations and other white supremacist groups, avoid an
intensive manhunt and vanish along with their families. Their
mobile home is later found near Casper, Wyoming. Chevie Kehoe
is wanted for questioning in connection with the murders of
an Arkansas gun dealer with ties to the militia movement, and
February 18, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Aryan Nations
leader Mark Thomas pleads guilty to plotting seven bank
robberies and using the cash to further the cause of white
supremacy in connection with the Midwestern Bank Bandits.
February 20, Georgia: Three Georgia militia members
receive stiff sentences for their roles in a conspiracy to
build pipe bombs for use against the federal government. Bob
Starr is given 8 years, one month; while James McCranie and
Troy Spain are sentenced to six ½ years in prison each.
February 20, Minnesota: Three Minnesota residents receive
convictions for attempting to pass bogus checks obtained from
the Montana Freemen. Marilyn Kerkvliet and Robert Leffler are
convicted of eight counts of mail fraud and passing
counterfeit checks each. Ronald Kerkvliet is convicted of a
single count of mail fraud.
February 21, Montana, North Carolina: The first conviction
arrives for members of the Montana Freemen, who held off
authorities for 81 days in the spring of 1996. Russell
Landers and an associate, James Vincent Wells, are convicted
of seven and twelve federal fraud and conspiracy counts,
respectively, ending a trial marked by combative behavior by
Landers. The two used bogus money orders to purchase vehicles
to drive back to Montana.
February 21, Washington: Supporters of the Washington
militia/freemen defendants on trial in Seattle file a $1.76
billion lien against the judge, John Coughenour, and five
February 24, Texas: Local authorities in Texas issue an
arrest warrant for Rick McLaren, leader of the secessionist
common-law group, "The Republic of Texas," after
McLaren failed to appear for a preliminary hearing on a 1995
burglary charge. However, authorities take no steps to arrest
McLaren, who is barricaded in a remote West Texas settlement.
February 28, Washington: The Washington militia/freemen
explosives conspiracy case ends in a mistrial. The mistrial
is declared on federal conspiracy charges against seven
people, while four defendants are convicted of weapons
charges. Washington State Militia founder John Pitner is
convicted of possession and transfer of machine guns. John
Lloyd Kirk and Marlin Lane Mack is convicted of possession of
unregistered destructive device. Gary Marvin Kuehnoel is
convicted of possession of a machine gun. Jururs can not
reach verdicts on additional weapons charges against Kirk and
his wife Judy Carol Kirk, and against Kuehnoel. Kuehnoel is
found innocent of three counts of possession of unregistered
firearm. An eighth defendant previously had pled guilty.
March 1, Wisconsin: $2 million cash bond is ordered for
Wisconsin man charged with hiring a hit man to murder his
estranged wife and her father. James Schuman, the man
charged, is a member of Wisconsin Militia.
March 2, Washington, Idaho: Trial begins for Charles
Barbee, Robert Berry and Jay Merrell, Christian Identity
white supremacists part of a bank-robbing gang in Spokane,
WA, area associated with the Phineas Priesthood.
March 2, Ohio: Ohio Aryan Nations member Morris Gulett is
arrested for ramming a Dayton police cruiser then fleeing.
March 3, New Hampshire: New Hampshire militia leader
pleads guilty to federal charges of stealing $100,000 in
equipment from Fort Devens Army base. Fitzhugh MacCrae,
member of Hillsborough County Dragoons, admits to three
counts. He is the second Dragoon to plead guilty.
March 3, Texas: "Republic of Texas" member John
Albert Crain files $27 million lawsuit over three traffic
tickets in San Angelo. The atmosphere between "Republic
of Texas" members and the real government of Texas grows
March 4, Texas: Pecos County Sheriff Steve Bailey warns he
may have to use extreme measures to arrest Richard McLaren,
"ambassador" for the Republic of Texas, for
warrants on burglary and failure to appear in court. McLaren
is holed up in a housing resort west of Fort Davis, Texas.
March 6, Wisconsin: Federal prosecutors go to court to
stop two Milwaukee area men, Robert Raymond and Robert
Bernhoft, from selling their "De-Taxing America
March 9, Oregon: Salem, Oregon, Militia leader Michael
Cross is sentenced to five years on probation for pleading
guilty to criminal mistreatment after receiving $25,000 gift
from an elderly foster-care resident.
Ca. March 9, Texas: Members of extremist group Republic of
Texas begin "impeachment" proceedings against
Richard McLaren as the group, under pressure from law
enforcement authorities, fragments.
March 10, California: Elizabeth Broderick of Palmdale,
California, is sentenced to nearly seventeen years in prison
on 28 charges related to selling more than 8,000 fraudulent
"Comptroller Warrants" with a face value of more
than $800 million. Several accomplices also receive prison
sentences in subsequent weeks.
March 12, Connecticut: "Sovereign citizens" John
Barney and Nina Barney of Salisbury, CT, appear in court on
charges of criminal trespass and interfering with police.
They are members of a common law court and they refuse to
vacate the properties where they live despite having hundreds
of thousands of dollars worth of unpaid loans.
March 13, Washington, Idaho: FBI agents arrest a fourth
suspect, Brian Ratigan, in the Spokane bombings, about the
same time as the prosecution rests in the trial of three
March 13, Oklahoma: Former Tulsa opera singer Carol
Elizabeth Howe is indicted in Federal court in Tulsa, accused
of willfully making a bomb threat, possession of a
non-registered destructive device and conspiracy. James
Dodson Viefhous, already in custody, is also indicted. The
two are founders and members of the National Socialist
Alliance of Oklahoma, as well as part of the Aryan
Intelligence Network. They left a message on this phone
network that bombs would be detonated in 15 US cities unless
action was taken by December 15 by "white warriors"
against the government of the U.S.
March 13, Ohio, Pennsylvania: Aryan Republican Army
members Scott Stedeford and Peter Langan plead not guilty to
conspiracy charges related to bank robberies they carried
out. Both have been previously convicted on armed robbery
charges. Mark Thomas, an Aryan Nations leader in
Pennsylvania, previously pled guilty to the charges. Thomas
and another defendant are cooperating with government
investigators; a fifth defendant, Michael Brescia, is jailed
and awaiting trial. Another suspect committed suicide in
March 17, Montana, Indiana: Joe Holland, leader of the
North American Volunteer Militia, is sentenced in Missoula,
Montana, to 10 years in prison for jury tampering and
advocating violence. He is also indicted on charges in
March 17, Texas: Texas officials issue two more (civil)
arrest warrants against Republic of Texas members Robert
Kesterson ("secretary of state") and Carolyn Carney
("secretary of inter-agency coordination").
March 17, California: California "Patriot"
Timothy Paul Kootenay, is sentenced to 300 days in county
jail and four years probation after pleading guilty to
purchasing assault rifles with bogus money orders issued by
Family Farm Preservation, a "patriot" group linked
with the Posse Comitatus.
March 19, Arizona: Six members of the Arizona Viper
Militia are sentenced to jail terms for conspiracy to make
bombs. The longest sentence is nine years. All had pled
guilty. The number eventually increases to 10 who plead
guilty. Two do not and will go to trial.
March 21, Ohio: The FBI and ATF jointly post a $60,000
reward for information leading to the arrests of Aryan
Nations members Cheyne and Chevie Kehoe for shooting at
police officers in Ohio in February. The Kehoe brothers are
thought to have fled back to their Spokane area origins.
March 21, Alabama: Alabama Court of Criminal Appeals
unanimously affirms the capital murder conviction of a
"patriot," George Sibley, Jr., found guilty in the
1993 shooting death of an Opelika police officer. His
common-law wife, Linda Lyon Block, is also on death row for
the same offense.
March 25, North Carolina: Dunn, North Carolina, resident
Arvalee McLamb is fined $5,000 and sentenced to five months
in prison after pleading guilty to failing to file a federal
income tax return. McLamb had ties to the Montana Freemen; he
is also charged in a federal indictment of various crimes
committed in connection with James Vincent Wells and Montana
Freeman Russell Landers. McLamb and Wells belonged to an
extremist group innocuously called The Civil Rights
March 25, Kansas: Two Kansas residents are convicted in
Tulsa for passing Montana Freemen checks. Bill and Karen
Hanzlicek were found guilty of conspiracy, bank fraud, mail
fraud and passing a counterfeit check.
March 26, Florida: In Stuart, Florida, John Foster, is
charged with obtaining $662,000 in bogus checks from the
Montana Freemen and using them to pay off the IRS and his
March 26, Ohio: In Columbus, Ohio, common law court
activist Larry Russell is found guilty of escape and
sentenced to 1 ½ years in prison. He fled Ohio following a
failed attempt to arrest him for driving without a license,
after which he was charged with assaulting a police officer
and escape, but was arrested at the Alaska border and
March 27, Nevada: Nevada militia man Harry Tootle is
convicted on charges of drawing a gun on a security guard,
then resisting arrest.
March 27, Arkansas, Missouri: Arkansas citizen Robert Joos
is convicted of resisting arrest and carrying a concealed
weapon during a confrontation with Missouri State Highway
Patrol troopers in 1994. The troopers were attempting to
arrest him near his church commune (the "Sacerdotal
Order of the David Company") in connection with a 1987
misdemeanor conviction involving a false court summons served
to a trooper. Law enforcement authorities are still searching
for Timothy Thomas Coombs, wanted for shooting and seriously
wounding a state trooper in retaliation for Joos
March 29, South Carolina, Oregon: In Anderson, SC, Embassy
of Heaven member Frank Lewis stages a seven day hunger strike
when arrested for driving without a license and operating an
uninsured vehicle. This is one of many hunger strikes staged
by members of the group, which preaches against all forms of
government interference. The Embassy of Heaven issues fake
drivers licenses, plates, and registrations for its members;
these are purchased by people all over the country. In late
winter, Embassy of Heaven members are evicted from their
"church" in Sublimity, Oregon, for nonpayment of
March 30, Michigan: Kalamazoo, Michigan, militia member
Brendon Blasz is arrested and indicted on suspicion of making
pipe bombs and other illegal explosives. Blasz and his
"small militia band" planned to bomb the federal
building in Battle Creek, an IRS building, a television
station and federal armies, according to an affidavit by an
informant. The Michigan Militia claims to have expelled them
April 2, Washington, Idaho: The jury hearing Spokane bank
bandits case convicts the three defendants on illegal weapons
charges and stolen vehicle charges, but deadlocks on the more
serious bank robbery and bombing charges when a sole jury
member, sympathetic to the right-wing extremists, refuses to
April 3, California: A Berkeley, California, woman, Mary
Margaret Lund, is convicted of using bogus checks to purchase
a motorhome in January 1996. She passed more than $223,000
worth of bad checks.
April 5, Montana: Fourteen of the infamous "Montana
Freemen" are hit with a 40-count indictment that will
take the place of earlier indictments against them. Charges
include multiple counts of conspiracy bank fraud, mail fraud,
wire fraud, false claims, threats to public officials and
weapons charges. A second indictment charges eight people
with helping fugitives escape arrest.
April 7, Washington: Gary Kuehnol, one of the seven
Washington militia/freemen charged with conspiracy (see
above), pleads guilty to a charge of transferring a machine
gun to a federal informer. He will not face new conspiracy
charges as a result of the agreement. Another participant,
Caitlin Hansen, earlier pled guilty to obstruction of justice
and was sentenced to three years of probation. Six still
await a new trial.
April 8, Montana: Pre-trial hearings begin for the Montana
April 8, Washington: A Clark County, Washington, motorist
is arrested with 2 loaded handguns, a bogus license plate,
and a concealed weapons "permit" issued by the
"State Militia." Jed Carson was cited on suspicion
of operating a vehicle with illegal plates, carrying loaded
weapons in a vehicle, driving without a license and failure
to provide proof of insurance. The plate read "SOV,
064-MNE, States of America united, America the
Republic." His "sales contract" for his
vehicle was from the "British West Indies," a
April 11, New York: A jury convicts New York city police
officer Jose Lugo on tax charges related to nonpayment of
taxes on $163,000 of income. Ten other police officers have
been convicted on similar charges; four more are facing
prosecution. The officers apparently got the idea from
Indiana militia leader Joe Holland and other tax protest
April 19, Idaho: New militia group forms in Idaho County,
Idaho, called the "Idaho Mountain Boys." Its leader
warns that if the county enforces building codes, the militia
will be ready to intervene.
April 20, Texas: Republic of Texas leader Richard McLaren
vows war if authorities try to arrest him. "Once they
make the move," he says, well have millions
of Americans on our side including every militia in
the country. Were talking war here."
April 20, Montana: Marc and Cheryl Andrea, of Florence,
Montana, are indicted for recruiting 125 Missoula area
residents into a California-based tax protest organization.
April 22, Texas: Republic of Texas member Jo Ann Canaday
Turner (see above) is arrested on two counts of contempt of
court for filing a fraudulent lien in violation of a court
order and for not attending a hearing.
April 22, Ohio: Ohio Aryan Nations member Larry Wayne
Harris receives a probation sentence after pleading guilty to
a single count of wire fraud for obtaining samples of bubonic
April 23, Texas: The FBI arrests three men and one woman
for planning a bomb attack on a gas refinery northwest of
Fort Worth. The planned bombing was to divert attention from
an armored car robbery that would finance their extremist
activities. The suspects have Klan ties.
April 23, California: White supremacist Todd Vanbiber of
Winter Park is injured while making a pipe bomb; the weapon
blows up in his face. Investigating authorities find
materials linking Vanbiber to the neo-Nazi National Alliance,
as well as 14 unexploded pipe bombs.
April 27, Texas: After police arrest Republic of Texas
"chief of security," Bob Scheidt, on weapons
possession charges, Republic of Texas members ordered by
Richard McLaren storm a nearby residence, firing shots, to
kidnap two neighbors as hostages. The incident begins a
standoff. The two hostages, a man and his wife, were vocal
opponents of McLaren.
April 28, Texas: After twelve hours of captivity, Joe and
Margaret Ann Rowe are released by Republic of Texas members
after authorities swap jailed ROT member Bob Scheidt for the
two. Formal charges are filed against six ROT members, from
engaging in organized criminal activity to aggravated
kidnapping with a deadly weapon.
April 28, California: A huge blast in a Olivehurst,
California, home leads to the arrest of sympathizer William
Goehler (a convicted rapist), charged with possessing
explosives. Goehler suffered a neck injury in the blast at
his home, while his wife and one of this children were
slightly injured. The explosive material was in a tree
outside the home. Goehler is associated with the Twin Cities
Free Militia. The previous year, he traveled to Jordan,
Montana, to show his support for the Montana Freemen.
April 28, Texas: Leaders of the other factions of the
splintered Republic of Texas group, Archie Lowe and David
Johnson, distance themselves from Richard McLaren.
April 28, Texas: A Texas Ranger assault team arrives at
Ft. Davis, Texas. About 200 law enforcement officers surround
McLarens location, where close to 10 Republic of Texas
members are holed up.
April 29, Texas: Two armored personnel carriers arrive at
Ft. Davis. They are named "Bubba One" and
April 30, Texas: Texas Rangers arrest seven individuals in
two vehicles at a truck stop in Pecos, Texas, with a supply
of fully automatic assault weapons and some explosive
materials. The individuals were on their way to join Richard
McLaren. A few others are also stopped in following days, but
the massive action predicted by McLaren does not occur.
Meanwhile, McLaren and authorities talk sporadically by fax
and phone. McLaren eventually breaks off negotiations.
April 30, California: Following the arrest of William
Goehler (see above) on explosives charges, two associates of
his, Kevin Quinn and Vernon Weckner, were arrested in Yuba
City, California, and 500 pounds of the volatile explosive
petrogel were found. Weckner is one of the central militia
organizers in northern California; he also is a common law
activist and a tax protester.
Ca. May 1, Oregon: Common law court advocates Dick Lancial
and Thor Lancial are indicted by a grand jury in Multnomah
County, Oregon, on multiple counts of forgery and simulating
the legal process for their common law court activities.
May 1, New York: Bronx-area extremist blows his hand off
in his apartment booby-trapped with homemade bombs. The man,
John Saperstein, an unemployed construction worker, had at
least five bombs in his apartment. Neighbors indicated that
Saperstein talked a lot about the "Patriots of
America" and the militia.
May 1, Colorado: Federal agents arrest Colorado militia
leader Ron Cole (the "Colorado First Light
Infantry") and two other militia members on weapons
charges in the Denver suburb of Aurora, Colorado. Authorities
seize weapons and explosives materials. Ron Cole, who claims
to be a militant Branch Davidian, has been one of the more
vocal militia leaders in recent months. Police find six fully
automatic AK-47 rifles, three land mines, 75 pounds of rocket
fuel, a pipe bomb, and much ammunition.
May 1, Florida: Brevard County (FL) militia member Brian
Edward Lanier is arrested after making threats that he would
kill himself on the state seal and blow up an insurance
building. He was held on an outstanding warrant from another
county for a 1989 aggravated assault.
May 1, Texas : Police negotiators send Richard McLaren a
"final offer" and threaten to move in to arrest
them. They also cut off power to his trailer.
May 2, California: Police investigating the Yuba County
explosives ring of Vernon Weckner, Kevin Quinn, and William
Goehler, arrest three more men, Jason Fox, Edward Whitlow and
Robert Scott Deaver, charged with possessing explosives. The
six plead not guilty.
May 2, Texas: Republic of Texas member Robert Scheidt
surrenders to authorities surrounding McLarens
"embassy." Meanwhile, police units move closer to
the compound. Richard McLaren issues a plea for
"reinforcements" and he and four followers fax
their wills to state police.
May 2, Washington: Richard Frank Burton, who pled guilty
to possessing pipe bombs and other charges in connection with
the Washington militia/freemen bombmaking conspiracy, is
sentenced to 46 months in prison.
May 3, Colorado: Arsonists destroy IRS offices in a
building in Colorado Springs, spray-painting "AAR"
or "ARA" inside the building. They cause more than
$1 million in damage.
May 3, Texas: Most of the remaining Republic of Texas
members surrender to authorities. Richard McLaren, his wife
Evelyn, and three followers (Richard Otto, Greg and Karen
Paulson), walk out of their hideout after signing a
"cease-fire" agreement with Texas Rangers. Two
members, Richard Keys and Mike Matson, decided not to
surrender and fled into the Davis Mountains. Authorities
began a search with bloodhounds, helicopters, and troopers on
horseback. Police find more than 60 pipe bombs at the
May 5, Texas: One or both of the two Republic of Texas
fugitives fire shots at bloodhounds, wounding two of them, in
the remote Davis Mountains. Later that day, police shoot and
kill one of the two fugitives. The other apparently escapes.
Meanwhile, Richard and Evelyn McLaren are indicted on charges
that could bring up to hundreds of years in prison.
May 8, Texas: Five more Republic of Texas members are
arrested as part of McLarens scheme to issue $1.8
billion in bogus warrants: Jasper Edward Baccus, Joe Louis
Reece, Steven Craig Crear, Erwin Leo Brown, and Mark Anthony
Hernandez. Also arrested is Republic of Texas leader Robert
Kesterson, on three counts of contempt of court out of Travis
County, where he filed bogus liens and other documents in
violation of a judges order. Donald Joe Varnell was
another member arrested on contempt of court charges. State
authorities also filed suit against Carolyn Carney for
nonpayment of taxes. Other leaders, including Archie Lowe and
Darrell Franks, are also charged with contempt.
May 9, California: LA police arrest five militia members,
seizing a grenade launcher, hand grenades, hand grenade
components, automatic assault rifles, body armor, night
vision goggles, and over 100 different types of weapons.
Arrested are Glenn Yee, a reserve police officer, Alvin Ung,
Mark Grand, Timothy Swanson and Raymond Durand. None have any
previous criminal history. Police say more arrests are
expected; the suspects were allegedly planning to attack
several Southern California targets. Durand is later said not
to be associated with the militia suspects, but rather a
May 10, California: A seventh man, Daniel Sparhawk, is
arrested in connection with the Yuba explosives case, on
charges of possessing two tubes of petrogel. His girlfriend,
Tina Lorene Terrell, is also arrested, bringing the total
number to ten.
May 12, New Hampshire: New Hampshire militia leader Brian
Chabot pleads guilty to his role in theft of $100,000 worth
of military equipment (see above). Chabot is the third of
three to plead guilty.
May 16, Wisconsin: Three members of anti-tax group in
Wisconsin are given a 20-count indictment charging them with
tax fraud. These members of Sovereign Citizens for Liberty,
Frank A. Wysocki, Alan Cooper and Robert Iacoe, sold
"untax" packages to gullible people.
May 17, Oregon: Portland, Oregon, area resident James
Bell, active in militia and common law court groups, is
arrested by the IRS for obstructing the IRS. Among other
things, Bell devised a project called "Operation
LocatIRS" to learn the home addresses of IRS employees
in order to intimidate them. He is also suspected of having
used a chemical called mercaptan in a March 16 stink-bombing
of an IRS office. Bell is more well known for his Internet
essay "Assassination Politics," which proposed a
system of rewards for people who predict the deaths of
May 19, Montana, North Carolina: Russell Dean Landers and
Vincent Wells, two of the Montana Freemen defendants, are
sentenced in Wilmington, NC, on charges of conspiring to
commit bank fraud, intimidate IRS agents and transport stolen
property across state lines.
May 20, Pennsylvania: In federal court in Philadelphia,
Michael Brescia pleads guilty to charges of conspiracy and
armed robbery and agreed to testify against fellow members of
the Aryan Republican Army.
May 21, Oklahoma: Tax protester Wayne Gunwall of Ponca
City, Oklahoma, is sentenced to 15 months in prison for
conspiring with two others to harass IRS agents. The other
defendants, Kenney Moore and Colleen Moore who, like Gunwall,
pled guilty to one of the counts, have not yet been
May 22, Connecticut: A Connecticut judge postpones the
attempted kidnapping trial of "patriot" leader
James "Bo" Gritz and his son James R. Gritz until
May 23, Oklahoma: Wayne Gunwall and Howard M. Boos are
convicted in federal court on a three-count indictment of
conspiring to file multimillion-dollar liens against IRS
agents (see above, below).
May 27, Florida: In Tampa, Florida, Emilio Ippolito, his
daughter, and six followers, members of the
"Constitutional Common Law Court," go on trial on
charges of conspiracy and obstruction of justice. Ippolito is
the leader of one of the most prominent common law courts in
May 29, West Virginia: A "colonel" in the West
Virginia Mountaineer Militia pleads guilty to making a bomb
for other militia members who were plotting to bomb an FBI
fingerprint facility. Edward Moore is one of seven defendants
in the case; he faces up to ten years in prison.
May 30, Washington: Gary Kuehnoel, one of the Washington
militia/freemen defenders (see above), is sentenced to 27
months in jail for illegal possession of a machine gun, and
ordered to pay a $6,000 fine. The sentence was part of an
agreement in which all other charges were dropped.
June 2, Oklahoma, Colorado: In Denver, Colorado, Timothy
McVeigh is convicted for his role in the bombing of the
federal building in Oklahoma City in April 1995. He is later
given the death penalty.
June 4, Florida: A Jacksonville jury acquits Florida
"patriot" and ostrich farmer William Law of 21
counts of defrauding people by placing bogus liens on people
involved with his divorce. The jury believed the argument of
Laws lawyer that Law did not defraud anyone because no
one would believe the liens were real.
June 5, Arizona: Trial begins for remaining Arizona Viper
Militia defendants, Charles Knight. Viper Christopher Floyd
still awaits trial.
June 5, Oklahoma: A federal judge sentences two Oklahoma
common law activist Dan Meador to 16 months in prison, three
years supervised release and a $2,000 fine for obstructing
justice and illegally communicating with a grand jury.
Meadors case was linked to the case involving Kenney
and Colleen Moore and Wayne Gunwall.
June 12, West Virginia: The second of seven defendants,
Jack Phillips, in the Mountaineer Militia case agrees to
plead guilty to a charge of conspiracy to make bombs.
June 12, West Virginia: FBI affidavits reveal that the
Mountaineer Militia considered killing Jay Rockefeller and
Alan Greenspan, as well as their families, in a "holy
war" against the federal government.
June 16, Washington, Ohio: Cheyne Kehoe, wanted since
February for a shootout with police in Ohio, surrenders in
Washington. He will be extradited to Ohio.
June 16, Utah: John Chaney is sentenced in Provo, Utah, to
life in prison for aiding in the rape of his daughter. When
he appeared for sentencing, he ordered bailiffs to arrest the
judge for treason, but the bailiffs did not respond. Chaney,
a common law court activist and member of an extreme Mormon
sect, was convicted in April on three counts of aiding and
abetting in the rape of his (then 13-year old) daughter at
the hands of one of his followers. He has launched numerous
lawsuits against Utah judges for conspiring against his
June 17, Utah, Ohio: Chevie Kehoe is arrested in Cedar
City, Utah, after Cheyne Kehoe reveals to authorities where
June 23, Washington, Idaho: The second trial for the
accused "Spokane Bank Bandits" begins. Robert
Berry, Charles Barbee and Verne Jay Merrell are once again
defendants. The fourth defendant will have a separate trial
June 23, Arizona: Arizona Viper Charles Knight is
convicted of conspiracy to make or possess unregistered
June 24, California: Todd Vanbiber, the Orange County,
California, man who blew himself up while constructing a pipe
bomb (see above), pleads guilty to two federal explosives
violations. Vanbiber was a member of the neo-Nazi National
June 26, Colorado: Barry Taylor is convicted in Adams
County, Colorado, of using bogus "freemen" checks
to pay off his debts. Taylor is one of 12 indicted Coloradans
and the first to go to trial.
June 27, Utah: Former Montana Freeman standoff participant
Gloria Ward is found guilty of four counts of Social Security
fraud. Ward had been claiming Social Security survivors
benefits as the mother of the mans child, despite
having sued another man whom she claimed was the real father.
She faces up to twenty years in prison.
June 30, California: In Ventura County, Isabel Oxx is
evicted from her home, ending a long ordeal in which she lost
title to her house after using a "freeman" check to
pay off her mortgage. She will go to trial in early July on
federal charges of jury tampering in connection with the case
of Elizabeth Broderick (see above).