This is the annotated Table of Contents, with capsule descriptions of each
item. See below link for shorter Table of Contents.
A welcoming message and brief overview of the purpose and contents of the
- Table of Contents.(short)
Essentially this Table of Contents, without the annotations.
- Table of
Contents.(long) An annotated Table of Contents.
- Announcements and Messages.
A page for administrative messages and announcements.
- Organizations that Monitor the Extreme Right.
A list of mailing addresses and telephone numbers for organizations that
monitor right-wing extremists.
Watchdog Mailing List. A private mailing list for
people who have a professional interest in the subject of right-wing
extremism and related topics. The list includes over 500 law
enforcement officers, public officials, academics, journalists, civil
rights advocates, and other experts. It is a valuable resource for
information, news, and contacts.
A brief history of this website.
- Militia: History and Law FAQ.
A lengthy summary of the legal and historical issues surrounding a) the
statutory militia and b) private paramilitary groups. Written in 1995.
1. Introduction & Summary Material.
- Part 2. Quick Reference and List
of Questions Answered.
- Part 3. History of the Militia in
- Part 4. The Militia Today.
- Part 5. Legal Issues for the New
- Part 6. Afterword by Mark
A section for first-person observations of events or gatherings.
to a New World (Disorder): A Visit to a Gun Show.
This piece was written in 1995 and is one of the earliest pieces on the
website. It describes a gun show in Ohio, and the purpose of the
piece was to illustrate the extent to which extremists were using gun
shows to get their message across. Over the years, this essay
generated a great deal of angry e-mail from gun owners who felt that the
essay was an attack on people who liked guns and/or supported gun rights.
- The Martyrdom of Michael Hill:
A Visit to a Militia Memorial Service. This essay describes
a day-long memorial service in remote rural Ohio for a militia/sovereign
citizen leader slain during a traffic stop confrontation in 1995.
The memorial service, which occurred one year later in the summer of 1996,
was attended by a variety of militia members, sovereign citizens and white
supremacists. Among the speakers was Nord Davis, the North Carolina
Christian Identity figure with whom Eric Rudolph may have been
- News Items.
- The Neo-Militia News.
(1996-97) The "Old News" sections below are
summaries and capsules of extremist related news items that occurred
during the period 1996-1997. Many of them are abstracted from
various news sources, while scattered within are several more in-depth
reports on issues or events. The items are written for a general
- Old News, January 1996 -- June
- Old News, July 1996 --
News, October 1996 -- November 1996.
News, December 1996 -- March 1997.
Militia Follies. This collection of
militia-related news tidbits from 1994-1995 is one of the earliest items
on the website, place there before the site's focus became more explicitly
the publication of in-depth research.
- Calendar of Conspiracy. The "Calendar of
Conspiracy" is a quarterly chronology of extremist related criminal
activity arranged by date and state. It is an excellent way to examine
the activity levels of extremists, or of particular movements or groups, as
well as to get a sense of the breadth and scope of criminal activity that is
perpetrated by extremists. The vast majority of entries in these
documents consist of arrests, convictions, or sentencings.
Volume 1, Numbers 1 & 2 combined (January -- June 1997)
Volume 1, No. 3 (July -- September 1997)
Volume 1, No. 4 (October -- December 1997)
Volume 2, No. 1 (January -- March 1998)
Volume 2, No. 2 (April -- June 1998)
Volume 2, No. 3 (July -- September 1998)
Volume 2, No. 4 (October -- December 1998)
Volume 3, No. 1 (January -- March 1999)
Volume 3, No. 2 (April -- June 1999)
Volume 3, No. 3 (July -- September 1999)
Volume 3, No. 4 (October -- December 1999)
Volume 4, No. 1 (January -- March 2000)
Volume 4, No. 2 (April -- June 2000)
Calendar No. 1 (January -- December 1994)
Calendar No. 2. (January 1 -- April 18 1995)
Reports. The special reports are a variety
of in-depth case studies and research projects. Descriptions of each
- Special Report #1: The
Mountaineer Militia's Long, Slippery Slope. This case study of
the arrest of seven members of the West Virginia Mountaineer Militia in
1996 was written soon after the arrests in an attempt to provide a quick
and accurate overview of the incident. Because the incident was
not yet "over," in the sense that the trials had not yet been
held, this case study was labeled a "Special Report" rather
than a "Patriot" Profile (see below). In the subsequent
trials, most members pled guilty or were convicted, while two peripheral
figures were acquitted. The information in this report has held up
rather well over time.
- Special Report #2: Extremism
and the Electorate: Campaign '96 and the "Patriot" Movement.
This special report examined candidates in office in 1996 who spoke
before extremist groups or gatherings. Interestingly, most of them
won office. Perhaps even more interesting is the fact that in the
2000 elections there were hardly any instances of this phenomenon at
all, which adds credence to the notion that the post-Waco resurgence of
the extreme right crested in 1995-1996.
Report #3: Shootout in Ohio: A Case Study of the "Patriot" Movement and Traffic
Stops. This special report was written
soon after a highly-publicized 1997 shootout in Wilmington, Ohio,
following a traffic stop involving extremists. It is a useful
reminder to law enforcement officers (although see below for a better
one), but the information contained within regarding the specific
extremists involved in this incident is quite dated, as much more is
known about them now than in 1997 (information that makes them seem even
- Special Report #4: Common Law
and Uncommon Courts: An Overview of the Common Law Court Movement.
This special report is a scholarly study of the common law court
movement, which was the primary way the resurgence of the sovereign
citizen movement in the mid-1990s manifested itself. Although
common law courts are rare now, this report is still quite useful,
because it describes at length the origins, ideology, and many tactics
of the sovereign citizens who composed the common law court movement.
- Special Report #5: Calendar of
Conspiracy: A Chronology of Anti-Government Extremist Criminal Activity, January to June
1997. See Separate Calendar Section for Updates.
The Calendar of Conspiracy was originally written as a one-time special
report; it was later decided to make it a regular feature.
Report #6: Paper Terrorism's Forgotten Victims: The Use of Bogus Liens
against Private Individuals and Businesses.
Bogus liens have been one of the most common and most irritating ways
that sovereign citizens have attempted to harass their enemies.
Most of the attention directed at the bogus lien problem, however, was
directed at the use of these instruments against public officials and
law enforcement officers. These individuals were in fact the
primary targets, but many private citizens and businesses also
suffered. This special report was written to shed light on the
particular problems that they faced.
Report #7: Trusts and the Untrustworthy: "Pure Trusts" and
"Patriots for Profit" This 1998 report
is highly relevant today. It is a complete overview of the use of
abusive trusts in order to hide income or avoid paying income
taxes. While non-extremists also sometimes use this tactic, it has
become one of the major techniques used by extremists, who also
specialize in marketing and promoting these useless schemes.
Report #8: The Shadows of Waco: The Tactics and Dynamics of
Militia Confrontations This 1999 report
examines the tactic of confrontations involving extremists and law
enforcement at standoffs. Although it specifically concentrates on
militia-related events, the dynamics involved are applicable towards
most types of right-wing extremists (and some other sorts of extremists
as well). This report is of particular use to law enforcement
Report #9: Strange Territory: Ideology and Competency in the
Courtroom. This report, written in 2000,
is of particular use to attorneys, judges, and mental health
professionals. It describes the issues involved in distinguishing
unusual or fringe ideologies from mental illness or incompetency.
This section contains a variety of reports and items that cannot be easily
Things the Neo-Militiaperson Believes In?
This 1995 item is one of the earliest things placed on the website.
It is not very substantial and was largely used as "filler" at a
time when the site did not have very much content. Still, its basic
point--that extremists are often quite credulous on many issues--is still
and Reality: A Transcript and Analysis of Mark Koernke's "Time is Running
Out." This is an extremely interesting
piece. It is an annotated transcript of a 1994 video produced by
militia leader Mark Koernke. It not only allows you to see the
rhetoric used by militia figures to promote their ideas, but the
annotation provides the information necessary to distinguish militia
"spin" from objective truth.
- Flashpoint America:
Surviving a Traffic Stop Confrontation with an Anti-Government Extremist.
This is a short article written for law enforcement from an officer safety
viewpoint. It was originally written at the request of Calibre
Press. It is extremely useful and many law enforcement agencies have
distributed it to their officers.
Militia Watchdog 1998 Right Wing Extremist of the Year
At one point, there was talk of making this an annual feature, but it
never materialized. Essentially this is a detailed study of tax
protester Gary Beacom, who also happens to be a male professional figure
skater. The real purpose of the article was to illustrate how
extremist ideology can entice people into a movement.
Council of Conservative Citizens: Chronology of a Scandal
In 1999 a scandal erupted concerned alleged connections between Senator
Trent Lott and Congressman Bob Barr and an extremist group known as the
Council of Conservative Citizens. This piece was written to
summarize the issues involved and to lay out the path that the scandal
took. It was written slightly before the end of the scandal, so the
denouement is left out, but because conservatives were able to block
action, little happened after the events described here.
Wine, New Bottles: Paper Terrorism, Paper Scams, and Paper
'Redemption' Though this bulletin was
written in 1999, it is still extremely relevant in 2001, because it
describes in detail what is currently the hottest sovereign citizen tactic
across the country.
Famous "Militia Watchdog Links Page."
This is a lengthy list of extremist-related links, annotated and divided by
- "Patriot" Profiles.
The "Patriot" Profiles were designed to be case studies of
extremists that would illustrate their antics in depth. They were
written for a general audience in mind and are narrative in tone.
- Joe Holland, Calvin Greenup,
and the Anti-Tax Militia. This 1995 piece is one of the
earliest items placed on the website. If it had been written today,
Joe Holland and Calvin Greenup might have been described more accurately
as "sovereign citizens" than militia leaders, even though they
were involved in both movements. This piece is somewhat dated.
Since it was written, Greenup served his time in prison and was released,
while Joe Holland died in prison.
Purgatory: Bo Gritz and Almost Heaven. This
1995 piece is another very early essay. It was written to describe
the strange and often contradictory "patriot" leader, Bo Gritz.
The point of the essay was to illustrate how Bo Gritz twisted and turned
in an effort to be all things to all people on the extreme right wing, yet
still escape criticism from associations with radical groups or white
supremacism. The information contained herein is accurate, but the
article is somewhat dated because there have been so many additional
chapters to Gritz's rollercoaster life, including his self-insertion into
the Montana Freeman standoff, his arrest and later acquittal for attempted
kidnapping, his suicide attempt, his foray into the Eric Rudolph manhunt,
and his conversion to Christian Identity.
- Every Man A King: The Rise and
Fall of the Montana Freemen. This lengthy case study of the
Montana Freemen was actually released during the standoff in the spring of
1996. A "Patriot" Profile of the Freemen were in the works
in March 1996 when suddenly the FBI finally moved against the
Freemen. The intense coverage and interest generated by this event
resulted in the decision to do a "rush" job to complete the
profile of the Freemen, as well as to chronicle the standoff itself.
This was done so quickly that law enforcement agents were actually able to
use this report as background material at the standoff itself. This
report is still very useful in terms of explaining the origins of the
Freemen as well as their early activities. Obviously, it does not
detail the end of the standoff or the subsequent trials and convictions.
- A Fledgling Militia: The Blue
Ridge Hunt Club Versus the BATF. This case study examined a
nascent militia group called the Blue Ridge Hunt Club, which was really
the first such group to run afoul of the law, with several members
arrested in 1994. Interestingly, several militia figures praised
this report because it called into question the prosecution of one of the
members of the group. Not long after this report was released, the
Washington Post published a lengthy article which made much the same
Private War of Bradley Glover. This study
profiles the attempt of a group of extreme militia figures to attack U.S.
military bases that were suspected of training United Nations
troops. The members were arrested shortly before they were to attack
Fort Hood, Texas, on July 4, 1997, during a major Fourth of July
celebration involving tens of thousands of men, women, and children.
- Contributors Section.
See Section for Contents. This is a limited collection of
various items donated by contributors. It was thought at one point
that this would be a very substantial collection, but little ended up
materializing (although see below).
Contributor Section: Idiot Legal Arguments Cite Collection (a must for
attorneys!) This particular section represents an amazing
collection of legal citations involving the strange arguments used by
extremists in court, compiled by law librarian Bernard Sussman. Any
attorney or prosecutor facing such people in court will be grateful for this
- Militia Watchdog Image Gallery.
See Section for Contents. A collection of
extremist-related graphic images. It is not very spectacular; there
was never enough time to make this section what it deserved to be.
for Profit Rogues' Gallery. This was
originally going to be an ongoing collection of extremists suspected of
being involved in frauds or scams. Unfortunately, the time commitments
involved in keeping it up to date proved too much.
- Militia Watchdog Friendly Link
Image Gallery. See Section for Contents. Some graphic
images that can be used by people who wish to link to the website.
The website's creator had little interest in explicit opinion pieces; even
the one item below is much more of a research analysis than a traditional
- Afraid of Bugs: Assessing our
Attitudes Towards Chemical and Biological Terrorism. This
lengthy piece examines current alarmist attitudes towards the threat of
chemical and biological terrorism and attempts to introduce a measure of
sanity and common sense into the situation.