Last Updated March 7, 2000
"Retro" Calendar of Conspiracy: A Chronicle of Anti-Government Extremist Criminal Activity for the Year 1994
A Militia Watchdog Special Report
the purpose of this Retro Calendar. The
Retro series is a new series of chronologies designed to fill in the gaps,
so to speak, in this chronicle of criminal activity.
The first in the series covers the year 1994 and was chosen because the
militia movement essentially began in the first few months of that year; thus it
seemed a particularly apt time to start. Readers
will notice that most of the acts in this Calendar were committed by white
supremacists, but as the months go by, acts by militia and sovereign
citizen adherents begin to appear, representing the rise of activity of such
groups. Readers may also notice the
high level of violent incidents involving racist skinheads, a situation that is
really no less disturbing today, but is not often noticed in the media.
should be aware of the liabilities of these Retro Calendars.
The current issues of the Calendar of Conspiracy are compiled from a wide
variety of sources, including newspaper databases, websites, press releases, and
similar sources. The Retro
Calendars, on the other hand, are compiled essentially from one large computer
database. As a result, the
Retro Calendars can simply not be as comprehensive as current Calendars
are. Similarly, the further one
goes back in time, the fewer newspapers one finds that input their stories into
computer databases. Together, these
factors may well falsely minimize to some degree the level of extremist
addition, as with the current Calendars, some incidents never get reported in
the news, such as tax protest convictions or the filing of bogus liens.
Other incidents may get reported, but an extremist connection is never
revealed. For instance, a hate
crime may be committed, but no news story reveals that a member of a white
supremacist group committed the crime. As
a result, it would not find its way into the Calendar.
So here too there is some degree of false minimization.
should also understand that in reporting these incidents, the final status of
each individual or case was not checked; thus the appearance of an arrest item
in the Calendar should not be construed to mean that the individual arrested
automatically was convicted later. It
is possible, if unlikely, that the person was acquitted, unless there is another
item specifically mentioning a conviction or a sentencing.
This sort of error is very rare, but it could conceivably happen.
events that are listed here took place in major cities such as Chicago and Los
Angeles, as well as in remote rural areas in Washington or Tennessee.
Twenty-nine states and the District of Columbia are represented here, but
in actuality, some level of activity takes place in every state.
4, 1994, Maryland: Charles Edward
Altvater, leader of the World Church of the Creator in Baltimore, receives an
addition of seven years to his 18-year prison sentence.
Altvater had pled guilty to bombing a police officers house and
another officers patrol car in 1992 after police towed his car away.
At his original sentencing in August, Altvater had received a sentence
less than the 25 year maximum, but now a three judge panel reviewing the case
decides to impose the maximum sentence.
10, 1994, California: Eric Lord
Jeffrey is sentenced to five years in prison for making pipe bombs.
The alleged Orange County white supremacist was reportedly intending to
use them against minority drug dealers. Police
seized fourteen bombs.
13, 1994, California: Two southern
California white supremacists receive prison sentences for an attempt to attack
a black church and a synagogue in order to start a race war.
Christopher Fisher, an Orange County member of the Fourth Reich Skins, is
sentenced to just over eight years in prison following his guilt plea to
conspiracy to manufacture and use explosives on 17 occasions with the intent to
cause public harm and encourage acts of violence.
Carl Boese is sentenced to four years and eight months in prison.
Fisher, Boese and six others were arrested in July 1993.
The others were charged with weapons violations, while Fisher, Boese and
a juvenile had been plotting to assassinate Rodney King, attack a synagogue in
Orange County and blow up an AME church in Los Angeles.
21, 1994, Washington: White
supremacist Mark Kowalski, head of a group called the American Front, is
sentenced to 140 months in prison for a bombing of an NAACP office in Tacoma,
Washington, in July 1993. Kowalski
pled guilty to transporting and using explosives and for conspiring to violate
the civil rights of blacks and Jews. Kowalski
said that he and others plotted the violence as part of a race war to drive
minorities out of the community. Kowalski,
Jeremiah Knesal and Wayne Wooten, Jr., bombed the NAACP office, then drove to
Portland, Oregon, with rifles and pipe bombs, hoping to bomb a Jewish Federation
building there, but couldnt find it.
21, 1994, Connecticut: Authorities
arrest four Klansmen on weapons charges following raids on several residences.
Those arrested include the New England leader of the Unified Ku Klux
Klan, William Dodge, as well as three other people. Police
recover a pipe bomb that had been delivered to Dodge as part of a sting
operation launched after Wallingford police learned that KKK members in the area
were seeking explosive materials, silencers, and equipment to convert automatic
weapons. Also arrested are Scott
Palmer, Martin Regan, and Dean Hucal, on various weapons charges.
Three more will later be arrested as well.
24, 1994, California: Teenager
Richard Joseph Campos is charged as an adult with 12 felony counts related to a
series of racially motivated firebombings in 1993.
The charges include an attempt to murder a Sacramento city councilman by
bombing his bedroom, as well as firebombings of an NAACP office, the office of
the Japanese American Citizens League, a synagogue, and a state
anti-discrimination office. An
anonymous caller claimed responsibility in the name of the Aryan Liberation
25, 1994, Wisconsin: Shawano County
sheriffs offices and the FBI conduct a raid on two apartments in Tigerton
linked to the distribution of bogus money orders. This will eventually result in the conviction of several
members of a group called Family Farm Preservation, an offshoot of the Posse
Comitatus active in Tigerton in the 1980s, and will herald a rash of such money
orders produced by extremist groups ranging from the Montana Freeman to the
Republic of Texas. By February 1994
they will have been found in at least 20 states, mostly coming from Family Farm
28, 1994, Illinois: Skinheads
Joshua Cadieux and Jon Peracki plead guilty to two felony charges of aggravated
battery and two misdemeanor hate crime charges in a 1992 stabbing of a Hispanic
man. Cadieux receives a three year
sentence and Peracki a four year sentence.
A third suspect, a juvenile, will be tried later as an adult.
28, 1994, Arkansas: A federal
appeals court upholds the murder conviction of white supremacist Richard Wayne
Snell. On November 3, 1983, Snell
murdered William Stumpp, a Texarkana pawnbroker. He was sentenced to death on August 15, 1985 (but is also
serving a life sentence for a 1984 murder of an Arkansas State Trooper, Louis P.
Bryant). Snells death sentence
will eventually be carried out: on
April 19, 1995.
30, 1994, California: In a vicious
attack that will herald the resurgence of the common law movement, a group
of extremists follow Stanislaus County Clerk-Recorder Karen Mathews to her home
and beat her. The extremists
were angry that Mathews had refused to file their bogus liens on public
officials. Eventually a number of
them will be caught and convicted.
31, 1994, California: Christopher
Berwick receives a two and a half year sentencethe minimum possibleafter
pleading guilty to helping manufacture illegal machine gun parts to sell to a
white supremacist group
1, 1994, California: Jill Marie
Scarborough receives a sentence of one years probation for possessing an
unregistered sawed-off shotgun. Scarborough
and her boyfriend, Geremy C. Von Rineman, a member of the World Church of the
Creator, were among a number of skinheads arrested in southern California as the
result of a 1993 investigation.
2, 1994, Illinois: Tax protest
movement leader William Benson is convicted of failing to file income tax
returns for 1980 and 1981, as well as tax evasion.
Benson, a former investigator for the Illinois Department of Revenue,
became a celebrity in the movement for declaring that the Sixteenth Amendment,
which allows the income tax, was never properly ratified.
3, 1994, California: Terrance Grew,
an Alameda building supply salesman, pleads guilty to evading $154,363 in taxes
through the use of sham trusts obtained from Nassau Life and International
5, 1994, Mississippi: Byron de la
Beckwith is convicted of murdering black civil rights activist Medgar Edgars in
1963. Two previous trials, with
all-white juries, had deadlocked, and there was evidence of jury tampering.
10, 1994, California, Washington: Two
members of the World Church of the Creator plead guilty to bombing an NAACP
office and a gay bar in Washington state. Jeremiah
Gordon Knesal and Wayne Paul Wooten had already pled guilty on explosives and
weapons charges. Each face up to
ten years in prison for these charges, but also still face other related, state
charges (see January 21).
18, 1994, Maryland: Tax protester
Jabari Zakiya, a NASA engineer, receives a sixteen-month prison sentence and a
$25,000 fine for convictions on tax evasion and failure to file tax returns.
Zakiya, a member of the Save-a-Patriot Foundation and a co-founder of the
Progressive African Liberation Movement, owes $117,000 in taxes from the 1980s.
24, 1994, Texas: The FBI begins an
investigation of possible jury tampering in the murder trial of eleven Branch
Davidians. At least eight
jurorswho are supposed to be anonymousreceived letters highly critical of
the governments case. One month
earlier, the jury nullification group Fully Informed Jury Association mailed
nullification propaganda to all 300 prospective jurors called in to possibly sit
on the Davidian case. That list was
1, 1994, California: Josh Lee of
Costa Mesa pleads guilty to possessing a sawed-off shotgun. He is one of a number of people arrested during an
investigation of southern California skinheads (see above) in 1993.
3, 1994, Arizona: Tax protest
leader Marvin Cooley is convicted on charges of willfully failing to file a 1986
federal income tax return. Cooley,
who has twice before been sentenced to prison on tax protest charges, faces up
to one year in prison this time. He
vows that he will never bow to the beast.
4, 1994, Colorado: Three Pueblo
white supremacists are sentenced for illegally making aluminum flashpowder, a
powerful explosive. Antonio Estevan
Sandoval, Blue Elaine Gacnik, and Steven Carroll Gade receive sentences ranging
from 56 months to 22 months in prison.
4, 1994, Massachusetts: A Franklin
resident, skinhead Donald A. Pilkington, is arrested on charges of attacking
black and Hispanic students at Dean College.
Pilkington, who has a history of hate crimes, faces up to ten years in
4, 1994, Texas, Colorado: A federal
court in Amarillo, Texas, convicts We the People leaders Roy and Leanna Lois
Schwasinger on two conspiracy charges and eleven obstruction of justice counts,
as well as Darrell Sturgess on one count of conspiracy to obstruct justice.
The defendants had been charged with trying to impede officials
investigating a gigantic fraud scheme the Schwasingers had masterminded by using
bogus liens and other harassing documents.
11, 1994, Arizona: Tax protester
and former school superintendent Frank Ellena is released from jail before trial
after a federal judge noted that his time spent so far in jail awaiting trial
would be basically the amount he would have to serve if convicted.
Ellena had been a fugitive for more than a year before being arrested in
Alaska in November 1993. He will
soon become involved with the Montana Freemen.
16, 1994, Wisconsin: Posse
Comitatus member Roy G. Dobbs is sent back to jail for eighteen months.
Dobbs had been convicted of tax evasion earlier but only given probation.
However, Dobbs failed to pay his back taxes as ordered by the judge in
1993. Dobbs continues to claim that
the courts have no jurisdiction over him.
20, 1994, Montana: A Salt Lake
City, Utah, newspaper article notes in passing something going on up in Montana:
what may be the latest rage in grass-roots paranoiaarmed citizen
militias. This is one of the
first mentions of the brand-spanking new militia movement (the Militia of
Montana was officially started in January 1994).
21, 1994, California: Christopher
Garrett Horn pleads no-contest to a felony charge of arson and is sentenced to
seven years in prison. Horn, 19
years old, had caused more than $1 million to the Davis Community Church in Yolo
County. The skinhead reportedly set
the fire as a diversion to allow him to rob other locations.
21, 1994, New York: IRS agents
remove sixty dairy cows from the farm of Chautauqua County tax protester Roger
Crumb, who owed more than $104,000 in taxes.
Crumb, who claims that he is not a United States citizen, has
already served time in prison for refusal to pay taxes.
23, 1994, Massachusetts: William
Murray, the Woburn, Massachusetts leader of the Michigan neo-Nazi SS-Action
Group, is charged on nine counts of illegal possession of firearms, 16 counts of
possession of dangerous weapons, and one count of possession of ammunition.
Murray reportedly recruited skinheads from other states to come to
Massachusetts to use his address to obtain federal Firearms Identification Cards
in order to buy weapons and turn them over to Murray.
23, 1994, Florida: Unsealed federal
arrest affidavits charge a mother and son team, Janice Weeks-Katona and Jason
Spencer Weeks, with conspiring to kill a federal judge and several other people.
The two were involved in a scam called the Premier Benefit Capital Trust,
which was shut down in 1993, and also involved Theodore Navolio and Harry
Marrero. Weeks-Katona was
associated with various right-wing figures and causes, including Emilio Ippolito,
Charles Eidson, and the Pilot Connection Society, a notorious tax protest group.
24, 1994, Indiana: A federal jury
in South Bend, Indiana, finds Robert Rogers guilty of participating with five
other men (who had all pled guilty) in a 1992 attack on a black couple.
Most of the men were members of the local Ku Klux Klan.
Rogers is convicted of conspiracy against civil rights, interfering with
housing rights, possession of an unregistered sawed-off shotgun, possession of a
gun with no serial number and using a gun while committing a crime of violence. He faces up to 50 years in prison.
29, 1994, California: Ralph Allen,
a Sylmar, California, tax protester, is ordered to begin serving a 630-day jail
sentence for failing to file state income tax returns after an appellate court
rejects his appeal.
30, 1994, Maryland: Skinhead
Christopher Jacobs is sentenced to seven years in prison in a plea bargain.
Jacobs pled guilty in January to assault with attempt to disable
following an October 1993 gang attack on a teenager.
As part of the bargain, Jacobs agrees to testify against the other
30, 1994, Texas: Charles Arthur
Daughenbaugh is convicted on five counts of sending threatening communications
through the U.S. mail. Daughenbaugh,
already a prisoner, had sent death threats to a number of judges in Texas,
warning them that they would be executed by the Aryan Warrior.
31, 1994, Georgia: Five Ft. Benning
soldiersMark Abbott, Thomas M. Kelly, Jr., Christopher Bowers, Michael W.
Stacy and Kennan Zimmermanare accused of participating in a network to
provide arms and explosives to white supremacist groups in the South.
A three-year probe resulted in the arrests of 35 suspected white
supremacists in thirteen states in connection with the case, in addition to the
soldiers, who face courts-martial.
31, 1994, Arizona: Michael Anthony
Bloom is jailed for violating the terms of his probation by communicating with
known criminals and having access to guns.
Bloom, a skinhead, pled guilty in 1990 to conspiracy to commit arson and
misconduct involving weapons as part of a plot to bomb 37 buildings owned by
4, 1994, Georgia: Skinhead Joseph
Lindsey Durham is charged with kidnapping with bodily injury and robbery in
Gwinnett County, Georgia, following an episode in which five men and women
kidnapped an 18-year old man, threatened him with torture, and beat and robbed
5, 1994, Connecticut: Ku Klux Klan
member George Steele pleads guilty to illegal possession of a firearm.
He and four other Klan members had been arrested months earlier on a
variety of weapons and explosives charges.
Steele is the first to plead guilty.
16, 1994, Florida. Five people are
arrested during a march organized by the Populist Party, a group with
anti-Semitic and white supremacist ties, to support the flying of the
Confederate Battle Flag in Hollywood, Florida.
Included in the arrests was the spokesman for the event, Ku Klux Klan
activist Hank Pritchard, charged with threatening the lives of police officers
and disorderly conduct; Anouk McKeever, charged with aggravated battery on a
police officer and resisting arrest with violence; John Gruner, charged with
four counts of battery, disorderly conduct, obstructing justice; Donald Lane,
charged with resisting arrest with violence, four counts of battery, disorderly
conduct; and Lazaro Sotelo, charged identically to Lane.
16, 1994, California: U.S. Forest
Service agents arrest five men and one woman for conducting paramilitary
activity in national parks and forests in California. The men dug bunkers in the Los Padres and Angeles forests, as
well as Sequoia National Park, filling them with weapons and gear.
They also reportedly threatened to kill a sheriffs deputy.
Two others will be arraigned later.
20, 1994, Texas. White supremacist
Edith Marie Johnson is sentenced to 40 hours of community service after
pleading guilty to threatening to shoot new black residents of a once all-white
housing complex in Vidor, Texas.
22, 1994, Maryland: Federal and
local law enforcement agents raid the headquarters of a neo-Nazi group in
Baltimore, arresting three leaders and seizing four assault weapons and 2,000
rounds of ammunition. The two
men and one woman, were leaders of a skinhead group called the American
27, 1994, Illinois: Following an
appearance on the Jerry Springer Show, five skinheads attack employees of
a Chicago Wendys fast-foot restaurant and vandalize the mens restroom with
racial slurs. Four men and
one woman were arrested after fleeing the building and charged with one felony
count of a hate crime, one misdemeanor count of battery and one misdemeanor
count of damage to property. One
suspect, Aaron Stockwell, was also charged with aggravated battery. Also arrested were David Lynch, Robert Suggs, Kim
Schnackenberg, and a juvenile.
29, 1994, Illinois: Neo-Nazi
Jonathan Preston Haynes is found guilty of murder, for having killed a
Chicago-area plastic surgeon in 1993 to protect the integrity of Aryan
beauty. One week later he will
be given the death sentence.
29, 1994, Illinois: Tax protester
William Benson, famous for proving that the 16th Amendment was
never enacted, is sentenced to four years in prison on tax evasion charges.
This was a resentencing following an earlier overturned conviction.
3, 1994, Connecticut: Stephen Gray
pleads guilty to selling a firearm to a convicted felon as part of a plea
bargain. Gray was one of five Ku
Klux Klan members arrested on weapons and explosives charges in January 1994.
6, 1994, California: Tax protester
Richard Allen Bellon is sentenced to five months in federal prison, five months
of house arrest and a year on probation, following a confrontation with an IRS
agent, Bonnie Smith, in which he dragged her into his houseboat, arrested
her, and refused to let her leave.
6, 1994, Wisconsin: Former Posse
Comitatus leader Donald Minniecheskie of Tigerton Dells is arrested for
practicing law without a license.
16, 1994, Arizona: Tax protester
Marvin Cooley, a leader in the movement, is sentenced on tax evasion charges to
one year in prison and a fine of $25,000 for not paying more than $100,000 in
taxes. It will be Cooleys third
time in prison.
24, 1994, Arizona: Skinhead Michael
Bloom receives an 11 year sentence for violating his probation, following his
release from jail for having plotted to blow up minority-owned buildings in the
Phoenix, Arizona, area. In March,
police found three rifles and 2,500 rounds of ammunition in his home.
26, 1994, Connecticut: Klan Grand
Dragon William Dodge pleads guilty to possessing a pipe bomb.
Dodge was one of five Klan members arrested earlier this year on weapons
and explosives charges.
26, 1994, Indiana: Seventeen-year-old
Jaden Thompson is sentenced to 20 years following his guilty plea to attempted
armed robbery. Thompson and
three others were members of a white supremacist gang called the White
Brotherhood, who decided to rob and assault blacks addicted to crack cocaine.
On December 21, 1993, they robbed and murdered Cathy Long.
29, 1994, California: In Huntington
Beach, police arrest two skinheads caught with drugs, weapons, a homemade bomb
and thousands of dollars worth of stolen property. Arrested on various charges are John Francisco Montiel
and a juvenile.
2, 1994, Illinois: Robert Rogers
receives a sentence of 22 years in prison following convictions on five counts
of civil rights and weapons violations related to an attack on a black couple in
1992. Rogers and five other men
(including members of the Ku Klux Klan) planned and executed what judge Robert
Miller characterized as an act of domestic terrorism.
Earl Douglas Martin is sentenced to more than nine years in prison on
similar charges for his role in the same attack.
3, 1994, Illinois: Albert Ostertag
and Brian Gill receive sentences for their role in an attack on a Chicago-area
black couple in 1992 (see above). Ostertag
receives a sentence of over ten years in prison, while Gill receives a term of
seven and a half years in jail. The two had pled guilty.
10, 1994, Connecticut: Klan member
Edmund Borkoski is convicted on charges of conspiring to purchase a silencer for
a weapon he threatened to use on his sisters black boyfriend.
Borkoski is one of five Klan members arrested on various weapons and
explosives charges in early 1994.
14, 1994, West Virginia, Pennsylvania: Keith
Brian McCullough, a fugitive from Pittsburgh, shoots himself in the head after
police pull over the vehicle he was riding in, injuring himself critically.
In the vehicle, McCullough had a live grenade, various bomb-making
chemicals, and literature from Aryan Nations, among other items.
McCullough had an extensive criminal history.
He will die on June 17.
1, 1994, Washington: Michael Perry
receives a 27-year sentence from a Pierce County judge for murdering Chad
Petterson in a gravel pit. Perry
pled guilty in May to first-degree murder.
He and two other skinheads, high on amphetamines, murdered Petterson
because they believed he had doctored their beer.
13, 1994, Oklahoma, Washington: Clair
Neal McCulley, from Seattle, Washington, is convicted in on tax evasion charges.
McCulley was a leader in a Tulsa, Oklahoma, tax protest group known as
the Freeman Education Association.
20, 1994, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania: Brian
Joseph Clayton, founder of the skinhead group New Dawn Hammerskins, is arrested
in Pennsylvania for vandalizing Jewish synagogues and the car of a Jewish high
school teacher in Brockton, Massachusetts.
Three juveniles are also charged. The
group also intimidated blacks at a shopping mall with baseball bats, Mace,
bricks and other weapons, and assaulted two black girls.
Clayton faces up to eleven years in prison.
21, 1994, Arizona: Tax protester
and former school superintendent Frank Ellena is sentence dto time already
served (five months) on two misdemeanor counts of obstructing IRS agents.
He had originally been charged with five counts of intimidating and
obstructing IRS agents following a confrontation in July 1992 in Phoenix.
Ellena will eventually become involved with the Montana Freemen.
28, 1994, Connecticut: Klan leader
William Dodge is sentenced to slightly over five years in prison for possessing
a pipe bomb (see above).
29, 1994, Florida: Former
Presbyterian minister Paul Hill is arrested for shooting a doctor who performed
abortions and his driver in front of an abortion clinic in Pensacola, Florida.
It was the second slaying of a doctor over the issue of abortion in as
many years in Pensacola. Hill was the founder of an extreme anti-abortion group known
as Defensive Action.
31, 1994, Utah: A federal jury in
Salt Lake City convicts Michael and Karen Jensen on tax evasion charges.
The two tax protesters were members of the National Commodity and Barter
Association, a tax protest group based primarily in Colorado.
Before being indicted in 1993, the two had evaded paying almost $60,000
2, 1994, Texas: White supremacist
Jimmy Dale Jarrell is sentenced to six years in prison for having possessed an
illegal homemade silencer, as well as stolen goods. Jarrell had already been arrested in March for possessing a
homemade hand grenade.
4, 1994, California: San Leandro
police arrest three white supremacists and seize an assortment of weapons and
literatures in a raid following the appearance stickers on a local store.
Police arrest Joe Costa on suspicion of possession of assault weapons,
possession of a dangerous weapon and parole violation.
Also arrested are Jason Branscum and Larry Stewart.
6, 1994, Maryland: Life insurance
salesman and tax protester Ronald Brodt, Sr., is convicted of failing to file
state income tax returns for three separate years. Brodt stopped filing returns after becoming involved with the
Save-A-Patriot Fellowship, a well-known tax protest organization.
He will later be sentenced to eighteen months in prison.
7, 1994, Iowa: Des Moines police
search for suspects following an incident in which a black man is attacked by a
group of self-proclaimed skinheads with clubs who were apparently angered at his
being with his wife, a white woman.
9, 1994, Oregon: Maynard Campbell,
who instigated a day-long standoff in 1992 during an attempt to arrest him for
logging violations, is sentenced to twenty-two months in prison for convictions
on three counts of threatening to assault a federal officer and one count of
using a firearm to commit a felony.
11, 1994, Alabama: Skinhead Louis
Oddo is convicted of murder for slaying a homeless black man in Birmingham in
December 1993. A second skinhead,
Adam Galleon, pled guilty in 1993 and was sentenced to twenty-five years in
12, 1994, Florida: Two
husband-and-wife couples from the Orlando area are charged with harassing
federal judges by forging their signature on bogus liens.
Arrested are Janice and Bud Chess and Carlos and Hannelore Montalvo, on
charges of obstruction of justice, impeding a federal investigation and
conspiracy. The couples were
members of the tax protest group American Citizens Alliance.
24, 1994, Washington: Keith
Engstrom, a former Seattle police officer and tax protester, is convicted for
the third time of failure to file federal tax returns.
Two previous convictions were reversed on appeal.
29, 1994, California: Sacramento
resident Richard Campos is convicted on five felony counts of possessing and
igniting an explosive device, relating
to two racially motivated firebombings, but the jury deadlocks on seven counts
related to three other firebombings and a mistrial is declared on those counts.
Campos firebombed the home of a Chinese-American and the offices of the
California Department of Fair Employment and Housing.
The jurors could not decide if he was also responsible for firebombings
at three other places.
30, 1994, Kentucky: Ku Klux Klan
member Brian Grayson Tackett is sentenced to nearly 13 years in prison with no
parole following a conviction on conspiracy and arson charges for having burned
down a Bowling Green, Kentucky, church whose leader had criticized the Klan.
Earlier, Earnest Glenn Pierce, Sr., was sentenced to four years and four
months in prison for ordering Tackett to commit the arson.
Federal charges are pending against another Klan member for threatening
the life of a federal agent investigating the arson case.
1, 1994, Florida: Janice and Bud
Chess (see above) plead guilty to one count each of obstructing justice for
having filed bogus liens against a federal judge in central Florida.
8, 1994, Connecticut: Ku Klux Klan
member Stephen Gray is sentenced to six months in a halfway house for helping
another Klan member illegally obtain an assault rifle.
Gray was one of a number of Klan members arrested in Connecticut in 1994
on various weapons and explosives charges.
The next day Scott Palmer will be sentenced to 63 years in prison and
Edmund Borkoski to 54 months in prison. William
Doge was previously sentenced to 63 months in prison, and a fifth defendant,
George Steele, committed suicide before sentencing.
13, 1994, Illinois: White
supremacist Randall Scott Anderson pleads guilty to civil rights conspiracy
charges stemming from the bombing of a roller rink frequented by blacks, as well
as vandalism of a synagogue in 1992.
14, 1994, Michigan: Three Michigan
militia members become fugitives after skipping out on a court date following an
arrest on weapons charges.
16, 1994, Texas: Three Texas Ku
Klux Klan members plead guilty to various charges stemming from intimidations
attempts at the recently-integrated but formerly all-white housing project at
Vidor, Texas. Pleading are Judith
Ann Foux and her sons Steven Joseph Foux and David Carl Foux.
17, 1994, Pennsylvania: Two
skinheads, Micah Ross and Mark Allen Miller, are arrested in Westmoreland County
following the beating of a black teenager.
They are charged with simple assault, aggravated assault, harassment,
stalking, ethnic intimidation, conspiracy, disorderly conduct and reckless
19, 1994, California: Jonathan
Russell Kennedy, an Orange County skinhead, is charged with the attempted murder
of two Hispanic men in August 1994. Kenney
is already in jail, having been charged with killing a black man the previous
week, for which he faces first-degree murder charges. A juvenile is also charged with the murder.
A third man, Harry Jordan, is arrested later, after police learn he had a
baseball bat that might have been used in the beating.
21, 1994, Florida: David Martell, a
suspended lawyer from Orlando, is charged with obstructing justice and mail
fraud for helping two couples (see above) file bogus liens against federal
judges. Martell was associated with
tax protest groups such as the American Citizens Alliance and We the People.
26, 1994, Texas, Colorado: Coloradoan
Roy Schwasinger, leader of the group We the People, is sentenced in Texas
to sixteen years in prison for his involvement in a multimillion scam and his
efforts to intimidate public officials from investigating it.
Also sentenced are his wife, LeAnna Hoyt, to 12 ½ years in prison, and
Darrell Sturgess, to five years in prison.
They had all been convicted of obstructing justice, conspiring to
obstruct justice and conspiring to injure and impede an office of the United
States. Seven others charged made
plea bargains allowing them to avoid prison.
28, 1994, Washington: Tacoma
resident Wayne Paul Wooten, Jr., is sentenced to nearly five years in prison for
helping to bomb a Seattle gay bar in 1993, as well as for other explosives and
weapons charges. Wooten, a member
of the World Church of the Creator, pled guilty in February. Also arrested at the time was Jeremiah Gordon Knesal and Mark
Kowalski. Kowalski was sentenced in
January to nearly 12 years in prison for a bombing of an NAACP office, while
Knesal was sentenced to six and one-half years in prison.
29, 1994, Texas: Thomas Michael
Donahue is sentenced in Dallas to eight years and four months in prison for
various conspiracy, money laundering and similar charges. Donahue, host of a radio talk show known as Americas
Town Forum, as well as a tax protest movement activist, was involved in a
fraudulent peso exchange program that bilked investors of more than $40 million.
Fifteen other defendants were convicted in Texas and Oklahoma.
2, 1994, Pennsylvania: Ku Klux Klan
member Romie Young is arrested for plotting to blow up a dam near Huntingdon,
12, 1994, Tennessee: Police arrest
white supremacist Lee Smith after an eight hour standoff at the home of
convicted white supremacist murderer Byron De La Beckwith, where Smith was
living in a basement apartment. Smith
is charged with four counts of aggravated assault with intent to commit murder,
aggravated assault, resisting arrest, disorderly conduct and cruelty to animals.
14, 1994, Maryland, Pennsylvania: Self-proclaimed
white supremacist and Klan member Michael Todd Birkl of Altoona, Pennsylvania,
is arrested in Eklton, Maryland, following a 6 ½ hour standoff with
state police. Birkl had taken a
hostage, a doctors receptionist, who was recovered unharmed.
Birkl said that taking a hostage was the only way he could get his
15, 1994, Nevada: White supremacist
Justin Suade Slotto pleads guilty in Reno, Nevada, to murdering a gay man in
July 1994. Slotto stabbed the
victim more than 20 times and, according to Slotto, wanted to carve a swastika
on the body, but did not have time. Three
juveniles were also arrested at the time.
20, 1994, Kentucky: Ku Klux Klan
member Chris Conner is convicted of twice threatening the life of an ATF agent
investigating a 1991 arson, and of threatening to shoot up an employment
services office in Bowling Green, Kentucky.
24, 1994, Massachusetts: New Dawn
Hammerskins leader Brian Joseph Clayton pleads guilty in Boston to two counts of
conspiring to intimidate and violate the civil rights of Jews and blacks in
relation to vandalisms at synagogues and other activities in 1993.
He faces up to eleven years in jail.
24, 1994, Washington: In Parkland,
Washington, a suburb of Tacoma, a teenage boy, Shane Patrick Dallas, is arrested
after using racial epithets then opening fire on a group of African-American and
white teenagers in a parking lot. An
eleven-year-old onlooker was wounded in the attack.
The suspect, believed to be a member of a white supremacist skinhead
group, is charged with six counts of first-degree assault.
24, 1994, Georgia: Four Ku Klux
Klan members are arrested for allegedly murdering William Eddie Tucker of Hull,
Georgia. Arrested are Mary Samantha
Doster, William Mark Mize, and Terry Mark Allen, all charged with murder.
Also arrested is Christopher Hattrup, charged with murder, tampering with
evidence and giving false information. Tucker
himself was a member of a variety of white supremacist groups.
26, 1994, Florida: Suspended lawyer
David Martell pleads guilty to helping two couples (see above) file bogus liens
against two Orlando federal judges. He
was charged with mail fraud and obstruction of justice.
28, 1994, Washington: James William
Hamilton surrenders to authorities in Pierce County, Washington, and is charged
with rendering criminal assistance. Hamilton
had been sought in connection with the shooting spree of Shane Patrick Dallas
(see above); he allegedly provided the weapon and advised Dallas to pick up
spent shell casings.
29, 1994, Washington, D.C., Colorado: Francisco
Martin Duran opens fire on the White House with a semiautomatic.
He is charged with possession of a firearm as a convicted felon,
destruction of federal property, assaulting a federal officer, and using a
firearm in the commission of a violent crime.
Duran was adherent of the anti-government patriot movement.
10, 1994, Florida: Central Florida
millionaire and tax protester Grant McEwan is arrested on charges of attempting
to interfere with the administration of IRS laws and filing a false document to
obtain money from the government, in connection with the filing of a bogus lien
against the IRS.
16, 1994, Illinois: Skinhead Jason
Carlson is convicted of attempted murder for a racially motivated assault on a
Hispanic man near a bowling alley in 1992.
Two other defendants, Joshua Cadieux and Jon J. Peracki, had previously
pled guilty to aggravated battery.
18, 1994, Florida: Central Florida
tax protester Charles Kimmig is arrested for using a firearm to stop the seizure
of vehicles he owned by the IRS. He
is charged with impeding IRS revenue officers in seizing property and attempting
to recover seized property.
21, 1994, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts: Former
Ku Klux Klan leader Roy Frankhauser of Reading, Pennsylvania, is charged with
conspiring and attempting to obstruct justice in relation to a investigation of
skinheads in Massachusetts. Frankhauser
is alleged to have induced witnesses to destroy or conceal evidence.
Authorities were investigating the activities of the New Dawn Hammerskins
30, 1994, California: In San
Francisco, a mistrial is declared in a major case involving the Pilot Connection
Society, one of the largest tax protest groups in the country. Founder Phillip Marsh and seven associated had been charged
with conspiring to interfere with the operations of the IRS, but the jury
acquits one defendant and fails to reach verdicts on almost all of the other
charges. It is a major defeat for
authorities hoping to halt patriots for profitthose people who scam
other members of the patriot movement.
The Pilot Connection Society had sold more than 11,000 untax kits
that it promised would allow people to avoid taxes.
Eventually a retrial later will result in some convictions.
13, 1994, Illinois: Skinhead
Randall Scott Anderson, who threw a pipe bomb into a roller rink frequented by
blacks in 1992, is sentenced to nine years in prison. Two other accomplices, both juveniles who cooperated
with authorities, are sentenced to a few months in jail.
14, 1994, California: In
Sacramento, white supremacist Richard Campos is convicted on all counts,
including attempted murder, for a series of firebombings against minority
targets. A previous trial had
resulted in jury deadlock on the most serious charges.
Campos can receive up to eighteen years in prison.
28, 1994, Florida: Tax protester
Rocco Del Monaco, Sr., is arrested in Fort Lauderdale for filing bogus tax forms
against members of the board of directors of a bank that had foreclosed on his
mortgage, as well as others who had irritated him, including a federal judge.
The forms alleged that the members had received millions of dollars of
income from Monaco and were designed to trigger audits.
December 31, 1994, Massachusetts, Virginia, New Hampshire: John Salvi is arrested in Norfolk, Virginia. The New Hampshire resident had engaged in a shooting spree against abortion clinics in Boston and Norfolk, killing two women and wounding five others.