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Introduction
Background: Religious Liberty in America
Prayer in Public School
Religion in the Curriculum
Evolution vs. Creationism
Teaching About Religious Holidays
Religious Displays on School Property
Released Time Programs
Student Religious Clubs
Use of School Facilities by Outside Religious Organizations and Clubs
Distribution of Religious Materials by Students
Distribution of Religious Material and Proselytizing by Non-school Personnel
Dress Codes
Teachers' Religious Expression
ADL Can Help
Education  
Religion in the Public Schools RULE
Prayer in Public School

General Rule: Organized prayer in the public school setting, whether in the classroom or at a school-sponsored event, is unconstitutional. The only type of prayer that is constitutionally permissible is private, voluntary student prayer that does not interfere with the school's educational mission.

May students pray? Students have the right to engage in voluntary individual prayer that is not coercive and does not substantially disrupt the school's educational mission and activities. For example, all students have the right to say a blessing before eating a meal. However, school officials must not promote or encourage a student's personal prayer. Students may engage with other students in religious activity during non-curricular periods as long as the activity is not coercive or disruptive. In addition, while students may speak about religious topics with their peers, school officials should intercede if such discussions become religious harassment. It is essential that private religious activity not materially disrupt the school's educational mission and activities. Personal religious activity may not interfere with the rights or well-being of other students, and the threat of student harassment and pressure must be carefully monitored. It is also critical to ensure that the religious activity is actually student-initiated, and that no school employee supervises or participates in the activity. Any school promotion or endorsement of a student's private religious activity is unconstitutional.

Are vocal prayer and Bible reading in the classroom permitted? Vocal denominational or nondenominational prayer, and ceremonial reading from the Bible, are unconstitutional practices in the public school classroom. 8 It is legally irrelevant if the prayer or Bible reading is voluntary, or if students may be excused from the activity or classroom during the prayer. Student volunteers may not offer prayers for recitation. 9 Similarly, student volunteers are prohibited from broadcasting prayers over a school intercom system into the class-room. 10

It is irrelevant in any school context that a prayer is nondenominational. Even a so-called "nondenominational prayer" prefers and advances religion over non-religion (because composing truly nondenominational prayers is very hard to do, such prayers typically prefer one religion over others).

"[ T] he Establishment Clause forbids state-sponsored prayers in public school settings no matter how nondenominational the prayers may be." Lee v. Weisman, 505 U. S. 577 (1992).

Can a school or state require a moment of silence in the classroom? The U. S. Supreme Court struck down a statute requiring a moment of silence which students could use for silent prayer or meditation because it was enacted for the purpose of advancing religion. 11, 12 The Supreme Court has not determined if a moment of silence can ever be constitutional. The Anti-Defamation League takes the position that an organized moment of silence will almost inevitably be unconstitutional since both the purpose and effect of such moments of silence are invariably to advance religion.

Can there be prayer before or after athletic events or activities? A school district's policy of permitting student-led, student-initiated prayer before football games is unconstitutional. 13 It is also unconstitutional for a school official, including a coach, to initiate or lead a team in prayer. 14 Nor may a school official ask a team member or any other student to initiate or lead a prayer before, during or after a public or school-sponsored athletic activity or event. 15 It is also unconstitutional for a member of the clergy to offer prayers before or after public school athletic activities or events. 16 Voluntary prayer presented and led by students without official permission or sanction may be constitutional, provided that it is not coercive in any way.

Can there be prayer at graduation ceremonies? Prayers delivered by clergy at official public school graduation ceremonies are unconstitutional. 17 The fact that a prayer is nondenominational or voluntary does not render it constitutional. The U. S. Supreme Court has not specifically ruled on whether student-initiated nonsectarian graduation prayer is constitutional, and the lower Federal courts disagree on the issue. However, when the Supreme Court ruled in Santa Fe Independent School Dist. v. Doe that a district policy allowing student-initiated and student-led prayer before football games was unconstitutional, it effectively ruled-out the possibility that any district policy allowing student-initiated and student-led prayers would be permissible at graduation ceremonies. Moreover, in both Santa Fe v. Doe and Lee v. Weisman, the Supreme Court expressed particular concern that students could be coerced, through pressure from their peers and others, into praying during school events such as football games and graduation ceremonies. This danger exists regardless of whether it is a member of the clergy or a student who offers the prayer.

The Court also emphasized in Weisman and Santa Fe that attendance at major school events like graduation or football games should not be considered "voluntary" even if authorities officially designate it as such. Weekly football games and high school graduation are central parts of student life and students should be able to attend these events without fear of religious coercion. However, baccalaureate services, which are distinct and separate from official graduation ceremonies, may constitutionally include prayers and religious sermons. Such events must be privately sponsored and must not be led or sponsored by school personnel. Any school endorsement of such events should be actively discouraged.

Can there be prayer at school assemblies? School officials, employees or outsiders must not offer prayers at school assemblies. Even if attendance is voluntary, students may not deliver prayers at school assemblies either. 18 Student-initiated prayer at school assemblies is unconstitutional even if the prayer is nonproselytizing and nonsectarian. 19

May teachers pray in school? It is unconstitutional for teachers to pray with or in the presence of students in school or in their capacities as teachers or representatives of the school. Indeed, teachers may have their free speech and free exercise rights to speak about religious matters and otherwise say prayers in the presence of students abridged in an effort to ensure that there is no appearance that the school is violating the Establishment Clause. Because teachers hold such a special status in the school and are viewed as government officials speaking to a group that is both a captive audience and extremely impressionable, religious speech by teachers or other school personnel will be seen as a state endorsement of religion. 20 The Supreme Court has said that "the interest of the State in avoiding an Establishment Clause violation 'may be [a] compelling' one justifying an abridgement of free speech otherwise protected by the First Amendment... ." 21 It is also impermissible for a teacher to read the Bible in front of students during a daily silent reading period. 22

Can school boards say prayers prior to their meetings? While the Supreme Court has upheld the right of legislative bodies to open their sessions with a prayer, 23 other courts have addressed and struck down prayers in a school board setting as such meetings are "inextricably intertwined with the public school system." 24

Sample Scenarios:

    Football Coach Leads Team in Prayer
    On the day of the Central Valley High School football championship, the coach gave his team a last-minute pep talk in the Bulldogs' locker room. He then led the team in a prayer, as he traditionally did before each athletic event. Richard Nelson, a student, felt uncomfortable reciting the prayer because he was an atheist. He mentioned his discomfort to the coach who responded that Richard should simply stand in silence or feel free to leave the room while his teammates prayed together.

    Is the team prayer constitutional? Is the coach's solution viable?
    The team prayer led by Richard Nelson's coach is unconstitutional and the coach's offered solution is unacceptable. He has created an environment where Richard will feel isolated and as if he belonged to this group less than the other athletes. Moreover, as a school official, the coach cannot endorse religion as he is doing here.

    Fourth-grader Prayer and Religious Discussion at Recess
    Every day at recess, Jessica Lewis, a fourth-grade student, sits under a tree in the schoolyard, recites prayers, and engages her classmates in discussions of a religious nature. The recess monitor, unsure of whether Jessica's activities violate the school's prohibition against classroom prayer, alerts school officials who forbid Jessica's recess prayers and discussions. Jessica's mother threatens to sue the school officials, claiming that their interference with her daughter's activities was unconstitutional.

    Does Mrs. Lewis have a valid claim? How should the school respond?
    The school should allow Jessica Lewis to engage in prayer and religious discussions with her classmates during recess provided that her activity is not disruptive and does not coerce or otherwise infringe upon the rights of other students.

    School Policy Permitting Prayer by Student at Graduation
    A school district is reviewing its graduation ceremony policy. The policy calls on a member of the local clergy to deliver a "non-sectarian, non-proselytizing" prayer at the start of the ceremony. After the parent of a graduating senior complains, the school district would like to substitute a student who is elected by his or her peers to deliver the prayer instead.

    Can the school district substitute a student for a local clergy person?
    No. Neither is acceptable. Schools may not arrange to allow prayer at an event. Student prayer is limited to prayer that is personal, voluntary and non-disruptive. So long as the prayer is sanctioned by the district, at an official event using the school's loudspeaker and podium, such prayer is prohibited.

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