During the past 60 years impressive authorities have publicly attested to the
- Hugo Valentin, lecturer in history at the University of Upsala in Sweden, characterized
the Protocols in his 1936 study Anti-Semitism, Historically and Critically Examined as
"the greatest forgery of the century."
- Father Pierre Charles, Professor of Theology at the Jesuit College in Louvain, France,
stated in a 1938 essay: "It has been proved that these Protocols are a
fraud, a clumsy plagiarism. . . made for the purpose of rendering the Jews odious..."
- In 1942, several prominent historians, including Carl Becker of Cornell, Sydney Fay and
William Langer of Harvard, and Allan Nevins and Cariton J. H. Hayes of Columbia,
introduced Professor John Shelton Curtiss An Appraisal of the Protocols of
Zion" with their endorsement of his findings as "completely destructive of the
historicity of the Protocols and as establishing beyond doubt the fact that they are rank
and pernicious forgeries."
- In 1961 Richard Helms, then Assistant Director of the CIA, stated at a Senate
subcommittee hearing: "The Russians have a long tradition in the art of forgery. More
than 60 years ago the Czarist intelligence service concocted and peddled a confection
called The Protocols of the Elders of Zion."
- And in August of 1964 a subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Committee issued a report
repudiating the Protocols, to which Senators Thomas J. Dodd and Kenneth B. Keating
appended the following: "Every age and country has had its share of fabricated
historic documents which have been foisted on an unsuspecting public for some
malign purpose. . . One of the most notorious and most durable of these is the
Protocols of the Elders of Zion.."